Major trends in management system standards
Рубрика: 12. Стандартизация, метрология и сертификация
Статья просмотрена: 63 раза
Меркушова Н. И., Гаффорова Е. Б., Меркушова Ю. А. Major trends in management system standards [Текст] // Проблемы и перспективы экономики и управления: материалы Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Санкт-Петербург, апрель 2012 г.). — СПб.: Реноме, 2012. С. 153-156.
Standardization – an integral part of modern economy, in which field of activity consistently joined production, services, works, methods etc. One of the most important areas of standardization in the last three decades is the development and use of the international standards making demands to management of various objects of management at the enterprise: quality (ISO 9001), environment (ISO 14001), occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001), food safety (ISO 22000), information security (ISO 27001), risks (ISO 30001), energy efficiency (ISO 50001), social responsibility (SA 8000, ISO 26000). These documents are widely used in all sectors of the economy; they are applied by private companies, public authorities, public (nonprofit) organizations, industrial enterprises, services.
Demand for these standards in the world confirmed by statistics issued certificates showing significant growth, amounting to 18 % in 2009 for environmental management systems, 40 % for the standards for information security management, 69 % for systems of food safety management. The situation in Russia is also characterized by constant growth of interest in these instruments. Thus, in our country in 2008 was granted 16051 certificates of conformity to ISO 9001 and 520 certificates of conformity to ISO 14001. In 2009 the number of issued certificates was 35805 and 1503 units respectively .
Analysis of work done in the standardization of management systems revealed the following major trends in this area (Figure 1):
1. Expansion of facilities management.
In the three world leaders on the use of both in Russia and in the world are the standards for quality systems manager, environmental management, as well as the management of occupational health and safety. The development of theoretical concepts in management, a dynamic economic environment and practical experience lead to the fact that the composition of management system standards are constantly expanding due to the identification of new control objects. For example, in 2011, is preparing to adopt the standard ISO 50011:2011 «Energy Management Systems. Requirements and application guide», which develops and displays at the international level energy management system methodology, previously provided by national standards of some countries, particularly the U.S. (ANSI / MSE 2000:2008), South African (SANS 879:2009), South Korea (KS A 4000:2007), China (GB / T 23331:2009), Belarus (STB 1777-2009). In a united Europe based on common European standard on energy management system (EN 16001:2009) thirty countries have adopted its national release. Under the influence of this document, according to foreign experts, can get up to 60 % of world energy consumption .
In Fig. 1. Major trends in the standardization of management systems
[compiled by the authors]
A promising direction in the standardization of management systems is to develop standards for the management of assets, that is a systematic and coordinated action and the methods by which an organization optimally and sustainably manage its own assets and asset systems, and related parameters, risks and costs throughout their life cycle in order to achieve organizational strategic plan. Under the asset, in this case refers to machinery, equipment, property, buildings, vehicles and other things that have obvious value to the organization .
2. Harmonisation of the requirements of management system standards for the sharing and integration.
The standards for management systems have a common part of the requirements, including the following:
Development of policy in the field and mandatory documented procedures;
Using a process approach to management;
The use of the methodology Deming-Shewhart, known as the cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act («Plan-Do-Check-Improve");
Planning and implementation of continuous improvement;
Ensuring the effectiveness of the system.
Also, these standards have a common structure that is presented in the annexes to this document. Thus, in the annexes to the standard ISO 14001:2004, ISO 22000:2005 presents the correspondence between the structure of these documents and ISO 9001:2000. The annexes to the standard ISO 27001:2005, OHSAS 18001:2007 shows the correspondence between these documents and ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001:2004.
3. The expansion and specification of requirements management.
The development of standardization in the field of management systems, going through a deep analysis of the practical application of these documents leads to a significant new requirements, which include, for example, the following:
– Project management standard assets requires optimization of costs, risks and operating parameters of the assets on a short and a long period of time, considering the conflicting expectations of stakeholders. To implement this requirement it is invited to identify all the factors that influence the strategy in this area and decisions, to determine the significance of these factors, an analysis of alternative management decisions and possible scenarios;
– ISO 50001:2011 introduces a requirement to include energy efficiency as a mandatory parameter when performing the procurement of energy-intensive products;
– Mandatory composite controls in accordance with ISO 27001:2005 is an asset management and business continuity management;
– Interstate standard GOST 12.0.230 (similar to OHSAS 18001) introduces the requirements of Safety Management System integration with other management systems in the organization and evaluation of the effectiveness of the developed system. It is also an essential requirement of this regulatory document is to provide the leadership involvement of employees in the operation of the OSH management system (Section 4.2).
Thus, the international standardization of management systems, constantly expanding list of facilities, improves the requirements for management systems.
The undisputed leader among the documents listed above, as at the time of existence, and on the scale of demand and use, are the standards ISO 9000, claimant to the quality management system. These instruments were designed and adopted by the international community, primarily as a universal criterion by which may be assessed the ability of suppliers to produce a stable product that meets customer and thereby reduce the risks in getting the latest products (services) are not consistent with statutory requirements.
Many researchers in their studies indicate that the ISO 9000 standards objectively accumulate international experience of successful business [e.g, 4.5]. Wide dissemination and use of the above standards supported by the following: the number of certificates issued in compliance with the requirements of ISO 9000 is 1,064,785 units. in 178 countries , in almost every country there are several publications on a regular basis discussing the issue of quality management in enterprises, including through the establishment of the QMS, there is a constant evolution of these standards, the current version, the basic principle of which is to use a process approach to management, is already the fourth.
To date, we can talk also about the prospects of clearly defined standards of ISO 9000, which is manifested primarily in the following trends (Fig. 2). :
In Fig.2. Prospects for the development of ISO 9000 [compiled by the authors]
1. Creating a branch-based model of ISO 9000. The main direction of creating such systems - the expansion of the requirements for quality management system by taking into account the specific requirements of the industry. The most famous and popular areas of this document include, for example, the following:
а) Standard ISO/TS 16949:2009 «Quality Management Systems. Specific requirements for the application of ISO 9001:2008 for the producer organizations and mass-produced parts for the automotive industry», which is jointly developed by the International Working Group Automotive (IATF) and Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) with support from ISO. This document is based on ISO 9001:2008, but significantly greater than its hardness requirements and includes the following methods: SPC (statistical process control); FMEA (analysis of the types and consequences of failures, defects); MSA (Measurement Systems Analysis), etc. The total number of certificates issued for compliance with this document was 41240 units (up to 2009) . Despite the industry focus of this standard is to actively use and other enterprises with mass production and a large number of suppliers;
b) the standard ISO 13485:2003 «Medical devices. Quality management system. System requirements for regulatory purposes», which determines the requirements for quality management system in the production of medical equipment, is also quite popular: the certificate of conformity to this standard were 16424 organizations in 90 countries (up to 2009) . In the development of ISO 13485 have been eliminated some of the principles of ISO 9001, regarding the requirements of continuous improvement and customer satisfaction, which, according to developers, it is not suitable for use in such specific areas as the production of medical products. Additional requirements of ISO 13485 – it is new requirements for quality management systems and activities of enterprises producing medical devices. This, for example, equipment requirements, production and storage facilities, health personnel, amusing at work, etc. In addition, ISO 13485, in comparison with the ISO 9001 defines more stringent requirements on the order of execution of works, production processes and monitoring their implementation as well as expanding the number of mandatory documented procedures.
c) Standard IRIS (International Railway Industry Standard) «The general business management system for the railway industry", adopted in March 2006 the Union of European Railway Industries UNIFE, based on the provisions of ISO 9001, taking into account the specifics of the railway industry and railway equipment operating conditions. Since January 1, 2010 put into effect the second version of the standard, which incorporates many of the best practices of international industry standards in the field of management in terms of quality, cost and delivery times, namely, the system KPI (key performance indicators); knowledge management; project management, supplier development, risk management, management of RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability, safety), cost management, including LCC (life cycle cost) of products; lean production throughout the supply chain, change management.
2. Using the ISO 9000 standards, and other similar international management system standards as the basis for the formation of management for sustainable development. The global agreement between the UN and the business (Global Compart, 1999) requires the solution of the development, implementation and maintenance of enterprise management system that focuses on the implementation of the concept of sustainable development and ensures the balancing of the interests of business, people, society and, most importantly, future generations who are the most important stakeholder, along with consumers, employees, partners, etc. As the necessary tools for this task are currently under review of international standards in management, particularly quality management standards. In general, the ISO one of the main goals is to actively promote sustainable development, as evidenced by the active co-operatives of the organization with the United Nations, its agencies, IEC, WTO, UTI, WEF, the development of regulations in the field of safety, the environment, human health, as well as in the field of advanced technologies.
The new version of ISO 9004:2009 «Managing sustainable success of the organization. An approach based on quality management ", designed to meet the above trends, addresses topics such as strategy and policy organization, resource management (including those related to finance and personnel) and the processes, relationships with suppliers and partners, monitoring, measurement and analysis. The main shift in focus ISO 9004:2009, leading to significant changes in structure and content of the standard - control with a view to achieving sustainable development of the organization, not just advice on the construction of the QMS. Sustainability can be achieved through effective management of the organization by understanding the environment in which the organization operates, training, and appropriate use of improvements and innovations. ISO 9004 is not a traditional "standard requirements", but it can be effectively used to improve the quality management capacity in excess of the requirements specified in ISO 9001.
3. Establishment of integrated management systems, which are based on the requirements of ISO 9000. Integrated Management System - a part of general management that meets the complex requirements of two or more international standards and functioning as a unit, adapted to the overall enterprise management system to eliminate potential conflicts and overlaps, aimed at achieving the goals of the organization within the scope of selected international standards. The most commonly used to create the IMS standards for management systems in the field of environment, safety, information security. The presence of companies ISM is currently one of the evidences of the social responsibility of business.
Thus, the current standardization of management systems - active and multifaceted area, which has great potential for development and offering business owners and managers of all levels the tools to improve the activities in the form of the relevant international standards in the field of management.
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ISO 9004:2009. Managing for the sustained success of the organization - A view of quality management (unofficial translation) [electronic resource]: [WorldQuality] - Electron. data - Mode of access: URL: http://worldquality.ru/files/view/38.html