Pronouns in Latin language | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Авторы: ,

Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №52 (394) декабрь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 23.12.2021

Статья просмотрена: 3 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Джалилова, З. О. Pronouns in Latin language / З. О. Джалилова, М. Н. Алиев. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 52 (394). — С. 334-336. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/394/87023/ (дата обращения: 20.01.2022).



This article examines 4 types of pronouns. The data were reviewed in the library of the Bukhara Medical Institute, textbooks and websites were used.

Keywords: personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, case.

Latin pronouns differ from nouns and adjectives in a number of ways, including gender inflection, number inflection, and case inflection.

Personal pronouns in Latin are only 1st and 2nd person singular and mn. numbers.

  1. Personal pronouns (ego «I«, tu «you», nos «we», vos «you»).
  2. Reflexive pronoun (sui «self»).
  3. Possessive pronouns (meus, a, um «mine», tuus, a, um «yours», noster, tra trum «ours», vester, tra, trum «yours», suus «his»).
  4. Demonstrative pronouns (hic, haec, hoc «this»; iste, ista, istud «this, that»; ille, illa, illud «that»; is, ea, id «this»).
  5. Determinative pronouns (idem, eadem, idem «the same, the same», ipse, ipsa, ipsum «himself»).
  6. Interrogative and relative pronouns (quis «who», quid «what», qui, quae, quod «which, which»).
  7. Indefinite pronouns (alíquis «someone, someone», aliquíd «something, something», alíqui «some, some», quidam «someone»).
  8. Negative pronouns (nullus, a, um, «no one», nemo «nobody», nihil «nothing»).

In addition, there are pronominal adjectives (solus «one, only», totus «whole, whole», ullus «any, any», alius «other», alter «other» (of the two) and pronominal adverbs (ubi «where», quo «where», unde «from», quando «when», ibi «there», tum, tunc «then», ita, sic «so», etc.).

Pronouns vary by case, and some also by gender (possessive, demonstrative, determinative, etc.). The vocative case of pronouns always coincides with the nominative case.

The personal pronoun

  1. The personal pronoun of the 3rd person is missing. Its function is performed by demonstrative pronouns.
  2. Case forms of personal pronouns are formed from different bases (cf. in German, — ich, meiner, mir, etc.; in English, — I, me; in French, — je, moi). This is the phenomenon of suppletivism.
  3. The forms Gen. pl. nostrum and vestrum are used only when separating a part from the whole and are translated into Russian with the preposition from.
  4. The preposition cum is written together with personal pronouns and is placed after them: mecum (with me), tecum (with you), nobiscum (with you), vobiscum (with you).
  5. Personal pronouns in the function of the subject are usually not used. For example: Dum spiro, spero (While I'm breathing, I hope). The nominative case of personal pronouns is used mainly in cases when logical stress falls on them. Eg.: Ego scribo, vos legutis (I write, and you read).

Personal pronouns had the forms of the first and second person, there was no special form for the third person. Instead, one of the demonstrative pronouns was used. Personal pronouns are used less frequently in Latin than in Russian, mainly in cases where they have a logical emphasis. The reflexive self adjoins the personal pronouns. They are united by the uniformity of declension forms and the inability to change by gender. Personal pronouns had special (suppletive) forms for the first person ego I and the second person tones.

In Gen.Pl. two forms are used, one -nostrī, vestrī in the meaning of us, you; anostrum, vestrum in the meaning of us, of you. Pronouns represent a very stable layer of language. Indo-European languages have retained many common features in them. Compare personal pronouns in other Greek, art. slav., Lat. and Russian languages and set these features.

Reflexive pronoun

The reflexive pronoun has forms only of indirect cases, its singular and plural coincide. The reflexive pronoun sui «self» has no nominative case

  1. The reflexive pronoun in Latin, unlike Russian, is used only in relation to the 3rd person. In relation to the 1st and 2nd persons, the case forms of personal pronouns of the 1st and 2nd person are used in Latin: defendo me (I defend myself), defendiste (you defend yourself), defenditse (he protects himself), defendimusnos (we protect ourselves), defenditisvos (you protect yourself), defenduntse (they protect themselves).
  2. The reflexive pronoun has no nominative case and refers to both numbers.
  3. The preposition cum is written together with the reflexive pronoun: secum (with itself).

Possessive pronouns

meus, mea, meum «my, my, my»;

tuus, tua, tuum «yours, yours, yours»;

suus, sua, suum «own, own, own»;

noster, nostra, nostrum «our (m), our (f), our (n)";

vester, vestra, vestrum «yours, yours, yours» — are inclined according to the 1st and 2nd declension. They are inclined in the same way as adjectives I-II declension. Unlike the Russian language, the pronouns, -a, -um–own can only be used in relation to a third person: legomeumlibrum (I'm reading my book), legistuumlibrum (you're reading your book), legitsuumlibrum (he (she) is reading his book).

As Voc.Sg. pronouns meus use the form mi: mifilio my son!

Demonstrative pronouns

1) Hic, haec, hoc «this (m), this (f), this (n)" (when pointing to an object located near the speaker).

2) Iste, ista, istud «this (m), this (f), this (n)" (when pointing to an object located near the person to whom the speech is addressed).

3) is, ea, id (often used followed by the relative pronoun is,...qui the one that);

4) ille, illa, illud (points to a distant object);

Conclusion: Summing up, 4 categories of pronouns out of 8 that are available in Latin were reviewed. Unlike English, Latin has genders and every pronoun declines looking at it.

References:

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  2. Intercultural communication and the latin language/ Djalilova Z. O.
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  10. Zarnigor Obidovna Djalilova Studies on gender linguistics in the field of Uzbek language // Academic research in educational sciences. 2021. № 3. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/studies-on-gender-linguistics-in-the-field-of-uzbek-language (дата обращения: 15.12.2021).
  11. Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna. (2021). Comparative Analysis Of Uzbek Men’s And Women’s Speech Through The Prism Of Gender Linguistics. Central Asian Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Culture, 2(2), 22–26. https://doi.org/10.47494/cajlpc.v2i2.65
  12. Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna, & Sadullaev Denis. (2021). Formulas of speech etiquette in a gender-engineered communication strategy. Central Asian Journal of Theoretical & Applied Sciences, 2(6), 5–11. Retrieved from http://cajotas.centralasianstudies.org/index.php/CAJOTAS/article/view/180
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): URL, CAJOTAS, I-II.


Ключевые слова

CASE, personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns
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