Comparison degrees of adjectives in Latin language | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Авторы: ,

Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №52 (394) декабрь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 23.12.2021

Статья просмотрена: 1 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Джалилова, З. О. Comparison degrees of adjectives in Latin language / З. О. Джалилова, А. У. Убайдуллоев. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 52 (394). — С. 336-338. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/394/86917/ (дата обращения: 17.01.2022).



Overview of the degrees of comparison of adjectives of Latin language is examined in this article, which includes examples from different books. Article was written by analyzing the web sites and books from library.

Keywords: positive, comparative, superlative, gradus positivus, gradus comparativus, gradus superlativus.

In Latin, there are three degrees of comparison: positive (gradus positivus), comparative (gradus comparativus), superlative (gradus superlativus).

Degrees of comparison of adjectives can be formed synthetically and analytically. The most productive is the synthetic, suffixal, method of forming degrees of comparison.

Among the adjectives in Latin, a set of quality adjectives stands out. They use terms like «beautiful», «kind», and so on to describe any aspect of the subject. These attributes may exhibit themselves to varying degrees in a certain person or thing. As a result, versions showing a greater or lesser degree of this attribute can be created by combining one or more qualitative adjectives: kind — kindest , etc.

In positive degree, adjectives of Latin language are known to change according to the I — II declensions and according to the III declension (vowel).

Gradus comparativus — comparative degree is formed:

  1. the basis of gen. sing. adjectives + suffixes - ior- (m,f) / - ius - (n).

Adjectives are inclined to a comparative degree according to the consonant type III declension of nouns.

Comparative degree of adjectives in the form of nom. sing . it is formed by adding the suffix - ior for masculine and feminine genders and the suffix - ius for neuter genders to the base of the adjective; the ending is in the form of nom. sing . all genera have zero endings.

In order to form the form of the comparative degree of an adjective, it is necessary to highlight the basis of the adjective and add a suffix to it:

Basis of adj,

Gradus comparativus — comparative degree nom.sing

long-

long-ior (m,f) long-ius (n)

brev-

brev-ior (m, f) brev-ius (n)

felīc

felic-ior (m, f) felic-ius (n)

Gradus superlativus — superlative degree is formed:

1.

the basis of genetivus sing . adjectives + suffix -issim- + generic endings -us (m), -a(f), -um (n): felix (happy) felicissimus, a, um (happiest);

2.

if in nominativus sing . the adjective ends in - er , then the suffix - rim - is used, which is attached to the form nominativus sing .: pulcher (beautiful) pulcher rim us , a, um (beautiful);

3.

6 adjectives of the III declension, which are in nominativus sing . end in - ilis , form a superlative using the suffix - lim -:

  1. Example

Genders

M

F

N

1.long-

(longest)

long- ĭssim - us

long- ĭssim - a

long- ĭssim - um

2. simplĭc-

(simple)

simplic- issĭm - us

simplic- issĭm - a

simplic- issĭm - um

2. Adjectives ending in the masculine gender in - er form a superlative by attaching to the form Nom. sing . masculine suffix - rim - and generic endings - us (m), -a (f), -um (n) in the form of nom. sing .:

Genders

M

F

N

1.liber-

(free)

liber- rĭm -us

liber- rĭm - a

liber- rĭm - um

2. acer-

(sharp, acute)

acer- rĭm -us

acer- rĭm -a

acer- rĭm - um

  1. Example

Positive degree (gradus positivus)

Superlative degree (gradus superlativus) nom.sing

facĭlis, e — easy

facil- lĭm -us, a, um

difficĭlis, e — difficult

difficil- lĭm -us, a, um

simĭlis, e — similar

simil- lĭm -us, a, um

dissimĭlis, e — unlike

dissimil- lĭm -us, a, um

gracĭlis, e — thin

gracil- lĭm -us, a, um

humĭlis, e — low

humil- lĭm -us, a, um

Conclusion: To conclude, in Latin, the degrees of comparison of adjectives can be formed synthetically and analytically. The most productive is the synthetic, suffixal, method of forming degrees of comparison.

References:

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Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): III, URL, CAJOTAS.


Ключевые слова

positive, comparative, superlative, gradus positivus, gradus comparativus, gradus superlativus
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