Verbs in Latin language | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №53 (395) декабрь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 23.12.2021

Статья просмотрена: 1 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Джалилова, З. О. Verbs in Latin language / З. О. Джалилова, М. Х. Хайётов. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 53 (395). — С. 255-257. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/395/86919/ (дата обращения: 18.01.2022).



This article is devoted to the study of the verb in Latin. In particular, the article contains clear information about grammatical changes of the verb in Latin. The study used materials from social networks and a textbook.

Keywords: tense, person, number, conjugation, instances, basic forms, affirmation, formations.

Tense (tempus), mood (modus), voice (genus), person (persnana), and number (numrus) are the grammatical categories of the Latin verb (verbum).

Time (tempus): The Latin verb tenses are separated into two time systems based on how they are formed and what they mean:

  1. the infect system: praesens — present; imperfectum — imperfect past; futurum I (primum) — first future; 2. the perfect system: perfectum — past of perfect form; plusquamperfectum — past; futurum II (secundum) — second future.

I is the first, II is the second, III is the third, and IV is the fourth. Non-personal verb forms in Latin include: indeterminate verb form — infinitivus; participle — participium; verbal nouns — supinum, gerundium; verbal adjective — gerundivum; and verbal adjective — gerundivum. [1]

There are six instances in the Latin verb:

1) praesens — the state of being present

2) futurum I (primum) — the first future, or Russian future, is long and brief;

3) futurum II (secundum or exactum «completed») — the second future, denoting an activity that occurs before the first future (futurum I).

4) imperfectum — imperfect, past tense, with the value of the action's duration in time. the Russian past tense of an imperfect form or referring to the start of an action;

5) perfectum is a perfect, past tense, having the meaning of an action completed in time, and, basically, corresponding. perfect Russian past tense;

6) plusquamperfectum -- a plusquamperfect, the past tense, whose action has ended by the beginning of the action indicated by another past tense.

  1. Three moods.

1) indicativus -- indicative mood, indicative;

2) conjunctivus -- subjunctive mood, conjunctive;

3) imperativus -- imperative mood, imperative. [2]

Note

Long vowels are highlighted in capital letters

in the Latin words below:

(a-A,e-E,i-I,o-O,u-U).

  1. Make two commitments.

1) passvum — passive, passive voice;

2) actvum — legitimate, active pledge;

3) passvum — passive, passive voice.

  1. There are two numbers .

1) singularis — unit ch.; 2) singularis — unit ch.; 3) singularis

mn. ch. 2) pluralis — pluralis — pluralis — pluralis — pluralis — pluralis

  1. Three people are identified in each number.

persona primo means «first person» in Latin.

2nd person (persona secunda) persona teria is a third-person pronoun.

In addition to personal forms (verbum finītum), the Latin verb has non-personal forms (verbum infinītum): infinitive (infinitivus), participle (participium), verbal names (supīnum, gerundium, gerundīvum).

There are two types of verbs: personal (verbum finitum) and non-personal (nominative) (verbum infinitum). Personal forms, also known as conjugated forms, link an activity to the person who performs it. Forms that aren't personal don't have a face. Participles (participia, gerundivum), verbal names (supinum, gerundium), and infinitives are among them (infinitivi). [8]

Forms for individuals

Person, number, vow, time, and mood are all sections on personal forms.

The Latin verb has three persons (personas): the first person, the second person, and the third person, as well as two other persons.

singular (singularis), plural (pluralis) (pluralis).

Affirmation (conjugatio)

In Latin, regular verbs are separated into four conjugations.

The importance of conjugation is determined at the end of the infection's foundation. The infection finishes in a long [a] in I conjugation, a long [e] in II, a long I in IV, and a consonant sound, [u] (IIIa) or short I in III.

InfinitIvus

The basis of the infection

conjugation

ornAre decorate

docEre to teach

scriber write

statuere to put

capere to take

audIre listen

ornA-

docE-

scrib-

statu-

capi-

audI-

I

II

III a

III a

III b

IV

The last vowel of the base I preceding [r] is re- incorporated in [e] in IIIb conjugated verbs: capture capture. It is therefore necessary to understand the first l.unit.h. of the infection verbs in the third conjugation, as well as the infinitive form, in order to establish the basis of the infection verbs in the third conjugation. [5]

The first is the present tense (the -o form), which is found in dictionaries. As a result, determining the basis of an effect is as simple as comparing two forms, such as scribo «I write» and scribere «to write» — the basis of scrib-.

Basic forms

The Latin verb has four main forms: 1st L.unit.ch. praesentis

indicatIvi actIvi (present tense of the indicative mood of the actual pledge); 1st l. unit.h. perfecti indicatIvi actIvi (past tense- no indicative mood of the actual pledge); supInum (supin — verbal noun), infinitIvus praesentis actIvi (infinitive of us- present tense of the actual pledge).

The basics

Infect, perfect, and supine are the three bases of the verb. The 4th basic form, excluding the ending [-re,-ere], or the initial form, omitting the ending [O], determine the infection's foundation (ORNA-, doce-, scrib-, statu-, capi-, audi-). The 2nd basic form, minus the ending [-i], determines the basis of the perfect (ornav-, doc-, scripts-, audiv-). The 3rd fundamental form, without the ending [-um], determines the basis of the supine (urnat-,doct-,script-,audit-).

Note that the infect of verbs in conjugation I can only be determined in the form of the infinitive, whereas verbs in conjugation III (type b) can only be determined in the form of the 1st l. unit.h.: ornAre — ornas-, capio — cepi-.

To summarize, verbs in the Latin language have their own gender, number, time, and conjunctions, just like verbs in other languages. Each verb conjugates differently based on the person and the context in which it will be used. In addition, I looked at the formation of the verb and its root in my research.

References:

  1. Latin terminology in medicine: reference.- study. Stipend/Petrova V. G., V. I. Ermicheva. — 2nd edition, ispr. and add. — M: Astrel, AST, 2009, pp. 1–9
  2. The Latin language and the basics of medical terminology: textbook., A. Z. Tsisyk, E. S. Shvayko, — M.: Medicine, 2009, pp. 9–10.
  3. Stroh, W. O Latinitas! Erfahrungen mit lebendigem Latein und ein Rьckblick auf zehn Jahre Sodalitas / W. Stroh // Gymnasium. — 1997. — 104. — P. 271–290.
  4. Burke, P. Heu domine, adsunt Turcae! AbriЯ einer Sozialgeschichte des postmittelalterlichen Lateins / P.Burke // Verf., Kchenlatein. — 1989. — S. 31–59.
  5. Europas Muttersprachen: Latein und Altgriechisch sind in Deutschland wieder im Kommen // Die Welt Online [Electronic resource],-07.04.2006. Mode of access: article209136/Europas_Muttersprachen.html. http://www.welt.de/print-welt/
  6. Landfester, M. Humanismus und Gesellschaft im 19. Jahrhundert / M. Landfester. — Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 1988. — 225 S.
  7. URL: www.pedagogica.ru
  8. Borovskij, Ja. M. Latinskij jazyk kak mezhdunarodnyj jazyk nauki // Problemy mezhdunarodnogo vspomogatel'nogo jazyka. M., 2001. 120 s.
  9. Chernyavskij M. N. Latinskij yazyk i osnovy medicinskoj terminologii: Uchebnik. Moskva: Medicina, 2002.
  10. Boldyreva O. N. Net puti v medicine bez latinskogo yazyka (Non est viainmedicina sine lingua Latina)
  11. Vasil’eva L. I. Posobie po latinskomu yazyku. Klinicheskaya terminologiya: Ucheb. posobie. Minsk: IKO «Galaksias», 1997.
  12. Zarnigor Obidovna Djalilova Studies on gender linguistics in the field of Uzbek language // Academic research in educational sciences. 2021. № 3. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/studies-on-gender-linguistics-in-the-field-of-uzbek-language (дата обращения: 15.12.2021).
  13. Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna. (2021). Comparative Analysis Of Uzbek Men’s And Women’s Speech Through The Prism Of Gender Linguistics. Central Asian Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Culture, 2(2), 22–26. https://doi.org/10.47494/cajlpc.v2i2.65
  14. Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna, & Sadullaev Denis. (2021). Formulas of speech etiquette in a gender-engineered communication strategy. Central Asian Journal of Theoretical & Applied Sciences, 2(6), 5–11. Retrieved from http://cajotas.centralasianstudies.org/index.php/CAJOTAS/article/view/180
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): III, URL, AST, CAJOTAS, IKO, ORNA.


Ключевые слова

number, tense, person, conjugation, instances, basic forms, affirmation, formations
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