Adjective in Latin language | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Отправьте статью сегодня! Журнал выйдет 29 января, печатный экземпляр отправим 2 февраля.

Опубликовать статью в журнале

Авторы: ,

Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №52 (394) декабрь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 23.12.2021

Статья просмотрена: 2 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Джалилова, З. О. Adjective in Latin language / З. О. Джалилова, М. Н. Алиев. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 52 (394). — С. 332-334. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/394/86915/ (дата обращения: 20.01.2022).



This article is dedicated to studying Latin adjective names. The research used materials from social networks and textbook.

Key words: adjectives, grammatical category, masculine gender, feminine. Gender, case, number, declension.

Adjectives indicate symbols and properties of objects and phenomena. Latin adjectives (noun adjectives), are used to indicate the properties and quality of an object. Latin adjectives have the same grammatical category as nouns: gender (genus), number (number), case (case).

The categorical (generalized) meaning of an adjective as a part of speech is the meaning of an object's characteristics (quality, property, attribution. Latin adjectives, are relatively separate from qualitative.

The qualitative acronyms directly indicate the characteristics of the object, independent of other objects: true ribs-ribs, long bones-os longum, yellow ligaments-ligaments, transverse processes, large holes-hole magnum, trapezoid. Bones-os trapezoideum, wedge-shaped bones-ossphenoidale.

Relational adjectives do not directly express the characteristics of an object, but express the characteristics of an object through a relationship with another object: spine (column of vertebrae)-vertebrae, frontal bone-frontal bone, sphenoid sinus (a cavity in the body) Sphenoid bone)-sphenoid sinus, wedge-shaped ridge (part of the anterior surface of the sphenoid body)-sphenoid crest. The main adjectives in anatomical nomenclature are relative adjectives, indicating that this anatomical structure belongs to the whole organ or another anatomical structure, such as the frontal process (the process of extending upward from the cheekbone and connecting the frontal bone with the cheekbone)-forehead sudden. [2]

The categorical meaning of adjectives is expressed in gender, number, and case categories. The genus category is the inflection category. Adjectives vary by gender. It can take the form of a male, female, or neutral gender. The gender of an adjective depends on the gender of the noun you agree with. For example, the Latin adjectives for «yellow» (-th, -th) have three gender forms: flavus (male. Gender.), Flava (feminine. Gender.), Flavum (neuter. Gender.). I have.

Flexion changes in adjectives also occur when the adjective is tilted or numbered, as in a noun.

Adjectives, unlike nouns, are only tilted for I, II, or III declensions. For certain types of declension with varying adjectives, it is determined by the standard dictionary format in which it is written and stored in the dictionary. In the dictionary form of the majority of adjectives, the flexion characteristic of a particular type is indicated by the singular nominative. At the same time, some adjectives have nominative and completely different flexions for each genus. For example, rectum, rectum, rectum-straight, straight, straight. Other adjectives for men and women have one common end: neutral gender — another adjective, for example: brevis-short and short, breve-short. Adjectives are also provided in dictionary form in various ways. Example: Rectus abdominis, -a, -um; Brevis, -E. The trailing -us (male. Gender.) Is replaced by -a (rectum) in (female. Gender.) And (neutral. Gender.)-On -um (rectal). [1]

Adjectives of 1–2 declensions

It can be masculine, feminine and neutral (bonus, blessing, bonum). Feminine adjectives are in the pattern of the first declension of nouns (i.e. nouns in the nominative singular).

Case

singular

plural

Nom.

-a

-ae

Gen.

-ae

-arum

Dat.

-ae

-is

Acc.

-am

-as

Abl.

-a

-is

Voc.

-a

-ae

Most masculine and neuter adjectives follow the pattern of the second declension.

Case

Singular

Plural

Masculine gender

Neuter gender

Masculine gender

Neuter gender

Nom.

-us

-um

-i

-a

Gen.

-i

-i

-orum

-orum

Dat.

-o

-o

-is

-is

Acc.

-um

-um

-os

-a

Abl.

-o

-o

-is

-is

Voc.

-e

-um

-i

-a

For 3rd adjectives

They are divided into three groups:

  1. Three ending adjectives

In the nominative singular, there are separate forms for male, female, and neuter gender (acer, acris, acre).

  1. Two flexion adjectives

There are two forms of nominative singular. One is male and female, and the other is neutral (brevis, breve).

  1. Adjectives with the same flexion

In the nominative singular, all three genders have a common end (Felix). Apart from this, it is customary to distinguish between tilted adjectives according to the type of consonant.

To summarize, each adjective has its own case, gender, number, and declension in the Latin language. Every adjective has a different gender depending on whether it is feminine, masculine, or neutral. If necessary, the term of a specific gender can be used to replace cases and numbers.

References:

  1. Latin terminology in medicine: reference.- study. Stipend/Petrova V. G., V. I. Ermicheva. — 2nd edition, ispr. and add. — M: Astrel, AST, 2009, pp. 1–9
  2. The Latin language and the basics of medical terminology: textbook., A. Z. Tsisyk, E. S. Shvayko, — M.: Medicine, 2009, pp. 9–10.
  3. Stroh, W. O Latinitas! Erfahrungen mit lebendigem Latein und ein Rьckblick auf zehn Jahre Sodalitas / W. Stroh // Gymnasium. — 1997. — 104. — P. 271–290.
  4. Burke, P. Heu domine, adsunt Turcae! AbriЯ einer Sozialgeschichte des postmittelalterlichen Lateins / P.Burke // Verf., Kchenlatein. — 1989. — S. 31–59.
  5. Europas Muttersprachen: Latein und Altgriechisch sind in Deutschland wieder im Kommen // Die Welt Online [Electronic resource],-07.04.2006. Mode of access: article209136/Europas_Muttersprachen.html.
  6. Landfester, M. Humanismus und Gesellschaft im 19. Jahrhundert / M. Landfester. — Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 1988. — 225 S.
  7. Borovskij, Ja. M. Latinskij jazyk kak mezhdunarodnyj jazyk nauki // Problemy mezhdunarodnogo vspomogatel'nogo jazyka. M., 2001. 120 s.
  8. Chernyavskij M. N. Latinskij yazyk i osnovy medicinskoj terminologii: Uchebnik. Moskva: Medicina, 2002.
  9. Boldyreva O. N. Net puti v medicine bez latinskogo yazyka (Non est viainmedicina sine lingua Latina).
  10. Vasil’eva L. I. Posobie po latinskomu yazyku. Klinicheskaya terminologiya: Ucheb. posobie. Minsk: IKO «Galaksias», 1997.
  11. Zarnigor Obidovna Djalilova Studies on gender linguistics in the field of Uzbek language // Academic research in educational sciences. 2021. № 3. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/studies-on-gender-linguistics-in-the-field-of-uzbek-language (дата обращения: 15.12.2021).
  12. Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna. (2021). Comparative Analysis Of Uzbek Men’s And Women’s Speech Through The Prism Of Gender Linguistics. Central Asian Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Culture, 2(2), 22–26. https://doi.org/10.47494/cajlpc.v2i2.65
  13. Djalilova Zarnigor Obidovna, & Sadullaev Denis. (2021). Formulas of speech etiquette in a gender-engineered communication strategy. Central Asian Journal of Theoretical & Applied Sciences, 2(6), 5–11. Retrieved from http://cajotas.centralasianstudies.org/index.php/CAJOTAS/article/view/180
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): AST, CAJOTAS, III, IKO, URL.


Ключевые слова

CASE, adjectives, grammatical category, masculine gender, feminine. Gender, number, declension
Задать вопрос