Figure 1. English Alphabet
The external history of any language are the events in the life of people speaking it, influencing the language itself. It is also a reflection of the history of people, who speak it. The internal history of the language describes changes that occur in the language, its grammar, vocabulary, phonetic structure and writing. These phenomena are closely interrelated and we cannot study them separately from each other.
In this paper, I will analyze and put together the life of English language (Fig. 1) for 1,500 years. How it has developed from a small dialect. In the V century only 100,000 inhabitants of Britain spoke it. How it has grown into the language, in which 2 billion people around the world speak and write.
Historically English faced rivals, dangers and threats: it bravely resisted extinction, robbery, enriched itself and stiffened. Daniel Defoe said about English: «Our Saxon-Latin-Danish-Norman language». [5, p.15]
2. The German Conquest
The history of the English language begins in the V century, when West Germanic tribes of Anglians, Saxons, Utes and Frisians invaded the British Isles. They conquered almost all the fertile land, they partially exterminated, partially replaced and partly suppressed the local population — the Celts. In dates back to 449, when invaders called Celts (Fig. 2) (Britons) «worthless», and their land «fertile». [4, p.9]. They pushed back the local population to the sea. According to Venerable Bede, who wrote in the early eighth century, Essex, Sussex and Wessex were founded by the Saxons; East of England, Mercia and Northumbria — by Anglians; Utes occupied Kent and the Isle of Wight. As a result, the various territorial dialects of old English period, were named after the kingdoms, where they were spoken. The most important kingdoms of that period, where different dialects developed, were Northumbria (Northumbrian dialect), Mercia (merci dialect) and Wessex (Essex dialect).
Figure 2. Celts
The struggle between warlike German tribes and the British Celts lasted for over hundred years. As a result, the Celtic language has almost disappeared, remaining only in some areas. The conquerors’ language has borrowed no more than two hundred words from it. In such a way the old English language was born.
The Angles, Saxons and Utes used the Runic alphabet — Futhark, that consisted of characters formed mainly of straight lines. So it was easier to carve them on stones, wood or bones. [3, pp.22–24]
Later the hard work the English language foundation of began. Modern English is still based on that vocabulary layer. It includes such common English words as: to be, you, man, son and others. [3, p.17]
3. Latin and English
In 595 the first messenger from Rome arrived to Kent. Later he was followed by other historical figures, preached Christ. Together with Christianity advent to the British Isles there came numerous monks (Fig.3), who spoke Latin and used the Latin alphabet. It gradually replaced the Runic and borrowing individual symbols to reflect sounds, that were absent in Latin — thus the so-called Insular lettering appeared. The Old English language was gradually absorbing Latin, borrowing such words as: angel, bishop, altar, cathedral, monk, verse. [5, p.24]
Figure 3. A Monk
Together with Latin, Greek penetrated into English and shared some words with it such as: donations, Apostle, Pope and school. [5, p. 116]
The interesting fact is that the old English language was highly inflected, i.e. with a well-developed system of endings (flexis), and the word order in sentences was relatively free.
4. The Scandinavian Invasion
Figure 4. Scandinavian invasion
The Conquest of England by the Scandinavians was a major event and influenced the language greatly. In the VIII century the Vikings began raiding the British Isles, often settled in the conquered lands, threatening to displace the tongue. The coast of Scotland was attacked by the Norwegians, but the greatest threat was represented by the Danes, who occupied a significant part in the East of England.
The Scandinavian invasion (Fig. 4) lasted for more than two centuries, and the result was the control of the whole England, that surrendered to the conquerors in 1013.The King of England Ethelred fled to Normandy; in 1016, the Danish king Canute officially became a political ruler of England. England became the part of the extensive Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The power of the Danes in England lasted until 1042. Scandinavian invasion and the ensuing relocation of Scandinavians on the territory of England, their constant contact and intermarriage with the local population has had a profound impact on all aspects of the English language. The invasion of the Vikings brought into the country mainly Danish, but Norwegian has influenced English as well. Scandinavian conquest had major consequences for English language. Scandinavian dialects spoken by the conquerors, by its phonetics and grammatical system were quite close to the Old English language. These dialects had similar basic grammatical categories, as English of that time.This similarity of English dialects and Scandinavian language made possible the mutual understanding without translation. On the other hand, the mass settlement of Scandinavians in the North and the East of England has caused a big impact on English language in these areas. The relation between the two languages correspond to relations between Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians; both existed in the same social stratum and were equal. The result was the confusion of Scandinavian dialects with English. It is reflected in the names of geographical areas and cities: Irby, Thersby, Tårnby, Corby, Langdal, Patterdale, Vattel and others. The Danes (Danishry) formed surnames, adding-son (son) to father's name: Pattison, Robson, Harrison, Hudson, and others. English was enriched with other borrowings, such as birth, cake, egg, sister, smile, confidence, etc. One of the distinctive features of the Old Norse was the sound combination [ck], included in the English language with words score, skin, sky. [5, pp.36–54]
English not only survived the Danish invasion, but, ultimately, benefited from it. King Alfred the Great won the battle with the Scandinavians and saved the English language. After some time, seeing the deplorable condition of the written culture, Alfred decided that the English language can unite depressed people. He revived education and science, which suffered from the raids of the Danes. By his order has ceased to use Latin as the language of science and literature.
In the mid-eleventh century the Danes were defeated. The king was Harold — the Englishman who inherited from Alfred books in history, philosophy, law, and poetry, written in the native language — the wealth, which had no equals in whole Continental Europe. Then, it seemed, not only England, but the English language was well protected. However, it had to face new conquerors, and take off the major threat it has ever faced.
5. The Norman conquest
In 1066 the conquest of England by the Normans began. This event was a turning point in the history of England and has had a significant impact on the English language. The Normans were of the Scandinavian tribes origin (Norman = Norfman 'Northern man'), but in the ninth century they began to make raids on the Northern coast of France and took possession of the territory on both sides of the mouth of the river Seine, which has adopted the name «Normandy». [1, p.475] Within a century and a half elapsed between the arrival of the Normans in France and the invasion of them in England, they had to be subjected to a strong impact of French culture. Mingling with the local French population, they adopted the French language and in the middle of the XI century, in spite of the Scandinavian origin, were native speakers of French, feudal culture-bearers and the French language speakers. In 1066 the Confessor (King Edward) died. Duke William, who had been laying a claim to England since long ago, headed his troops, collected with the help of Norman barons, made a landing on the English coast. On 14 October 1066 at the battle of Hastings (Fig. 5) armies of the English king Harold were defeated by the Normans. For several years they suppressed uprisings in various parts of England and were masters of the country. The rulers of Anglo-Saxon feudal nobility almost completely vanished: some of them were killed during the battles and uprisings, some were executed, those left emigrated from England.
Figure 5. Battle of Hastings
The Norman barons took their place of nobility and they spoke the French language, more precisely, the Norman dialect. Thus, a foreign ruling class appeared in England as a result of the Norman conquest. William confiscated the land holdings of the Anglo-Saxon nobility and presented them the Norman barons». In 1086 William the Conquerror sent his men all over England, into every shire to find out what property every inhabitant os all England possessed in land…» — the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says. [2, p.18] All positions in the Church, starting with the abbots were replaced by those of French culture. The French started to arrive in England by quantities. Among them were representatives of different professions: merchants, soldiers, teachers, etc. They were trying to find a new field of activity. During the reign of William the Conqueror (1066–1087) about 200, 000 French moved to England. The influx of French lasted for about two centuries. It is necessary to stress that the French language later joined the English. Civil war of King Stephen (1135–1154) and anarchy that accompanied it favored the influx of Norman barons, who seized the English land. After the loss of Normandy by king John Lackland (1203) the Normans, who did not want to accept the new conditions of life at home started to arrive to England in droves. For several centuries after the conquest the dominant language in England was French. It was the language of the court, government and Church. The English language was pushed into a lower social sphere: it was spoken by the bulk of the peasants and poor urban population. The relationship between these two languages were similar to the relationship between Scandinavian and English dialects. The French language was the ruling class domain.
1066 is considered to be the beginning of the Norman conquest. The Normans, a Scandinavian tribe, which settled two centuries earlier on the territory of modern France, embraced the language and culture of their new country, and it is the French language they brought with them to the British Isles.
After the Norman conquest the French language became the language of ruling classes for more than two centuries. It was the language of the Royal court, Parliament, judiciary, churches and schools and English was relegated to the background the English. The restoration of the lost role of the English language was accompanied by a large number of borrowings from French and a significant change in the grammatical structure of the language. Here are some of the words that were either borrowed from the French language, either acquired its present value under its influence: fry (frire, fries or French fries), vinegar (vyn egre, vinegar), herb (herbe, kitchen herbs), olive (olive, olives), mustard (moustarde, mustard), appetite (appetit, appetite). The French brought artisans, who gave French names to working tools: measure (measure), mallet (hammer), chisel (chisel), bucket (bucket), trowel (scoop). [5, pp.54–61]
When the new King William declared his power in 1077, he ordered to build the White Tower on the banks of the river Thames in London. The tower was to combine the Palace, Treasury, prison and fortress. Even now the Tower stands high majestically and menacing. The crows guarding it embody the power of the King, who brought the French language with him. The language of the occupied population was not taken into account, but it resisted the invaders, developed and remained not only the means of communication, but also the aliens-buster.
6. The Language of Royalty
Along with the development of trade the Normans relieved the pressure on local population. In the mid-thirteenth century the wool trade has made some parts of England richer. Even in ordinary villages beautiful churches were built. The cities were growing and sometimes French districts and English settlements (Norwich, Nottingham) were united. During the century the population of has doubled, attracting new English speakers from rural areas. But English still could not enter the castles of aristocrats. Senior ranks, bailiffs, lawyers, and merchants spoke French, but the English language has already gained its momentum. French was the international language of trade, it was some sort of an agent for different words coming from the East. Here are some Arabic words, which moved over to English with the help of French: mattress (mattress), hazard (danger), lute (lute), amber (amber), syrup (syrup). [5, pp.77–94]
Figure 6. John Cornwall
In 1204 the King of Normandy John lost the battle to France. The Norman dukedoms, the ancestral lands of William the Conqueror, his cultural and linguistic homeland, became the part of another empire. The Norman barons in England were forced to avow themselves British in order to save their land and not to become the French King’s (Philip II) vassals. England became their homeland, but they were in no hurry to learn English. Moreover, English women married the Normans and in such a way the English language has penetrated all corners of the country, including the castles. In addition, they brought home their own servants and nurses, who also spoke English, and both languages continued to mix. The French language introduced a large number of synonyms to English concepts and words similar in meaning, but with a different connotation. For example, answer is not quite the same as respond — now these words are almost independent. And liberty does not always mean freedom. [5, pp.77–94]
This layer of synonyms gave the language a striking flexibility and accuracy, allowing searching for the right word. It was the victory of the English language! And French, on the contrary, started to serve and enrich it.
John Cornwall (Fig. 6), a teacher of grammar, made great changes in school education and replaced French with the English language. He had successors and in 1385, during the regency of the King Richard II all English schools abandoned French. Court hearings and sittings of Parliament were held in English.
In 1399 Richard II was brought down by Henry of Lancaster, who gave a speech at his coronation in English. He became the King Henry IV, and English again became the language of Royalty.
7. Religion and English
Figure 7. The Bible
In England of the 14th century the Bible (Fig. 7) was the gospel truth, but there were no its English translations. Officially it was recognized that God spoke to the people in Latin. In those days it was very difficult to find a priest who read the sermon in English. But in York actors started showing began to show performances (mysteries) in English. Those were plays of religious content and they described the history from Christ’s birth to his death and resurrection. But Latin still dominated inside the Church. In the 14th century a scientist John Wycliffe started translating the Bible into English.  Many well-known English Biblical words came from the Wycliffe translation: birthday, child-bearing, communication, crime, humanity and others. The Church prohibited all English Bibles, but the followers of John continued his work.
The next person who translated the Bible was William Tyndale. He was a grammarian at Oxford and was obsessed with the idea of distributing the Bible in English. In 1524 he began to translate the New Testament into the native language, but he translated it not from Latin, but from ancient Greek and Hebrew sources. 
After two years 6,000 copies of this Bible were printed. It was done abroad and they were ready to be sent to England. However, the spies of Henry IIX exposed smugglers. Most of the copies were in the king’s hands. But some books have reached England, and it was impossible to destroy all of them. Then the Bishop decided to buy all the Bibles and burn them. Tyndale agreed, but all the money from this deal was spent on sending a lot of pocket Bibles to England. So the English language began to strengthen its positions in the religious world. Later in 1611 James has published another version of the Bible in English, which began to spread around the world.
Here are some expressions that came from the translations of Tyndale: scapegoat, let there be light, the power that be, my brother's keeper, sings of the times. [5, p.141]
Tyndale gave people not only the word of God, but the words that carried the ideas, described feelings, allowed to express emotions and describe their lives.
Soon England was full of such Bibles and almost everyone wanted to read it. Tyndale managed to distribute thousands of copies. Pocket Bibles were easy to hide. Since then England has been praying in English.
8. Shakespeare’s Merit
Figure 8. Shakespeare
There is hardly a person in the world who has not heard about Shakespeare who was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon.
Most of researchers today ascribe 38 plays, 154 sonnets and other works of poetic form to Shakespeare.  He invented characters, more alive that real people Falstaff, Katarina, Polonium, Jago; historical figures, that are remembered better than their real prototypes: Richard III, the King of Lire; gave birth to such stories and tragedies as «Macbeth», «Othello», «Hamlet». His work can be assessed from different sides. He was the first to discover or create more than 2,000 of words that we use now. [5, p.181]
Even if it was not him, who created such words as obscene (shameless), accommodation (comfort, location), barefaced (without beards, mustache), leap-frog (leapfrog) and lack-lustre (dim), they appear in his works for the first time. [5, p.181]
More than 400 years ago, a dictionary of Shakespeare had at least 21,000 different words, and if you take into account phrases and collocations, the figure would be about 30,000. If compared with the Bible of James, it is a great amount, because there were about 10,000 different words in it. Today the amount of the vocabulary of the average educated person is less than half of Shakespeare’s. 
Shakespeare has invented a lot of new words by adding them to each other: ill + tuned = ill-tuned (poorly tuned), baby + eyes = baby-eyes (eyes of a child), smooth + faced (clean-shaven). In the XVI century, people began to add such words as oh, why, well into their speech and Shakespeare caught it. [5, p.182] Almost every word could appear as any part of speech there were no rules and the language of Shakespeare ran riot.
Shakespeare was acquainted with the Bible translated into English. He also used new words introduced in the beginning and the end of the XVI century. Some of these words occur in the works of Shakespeare for the first time.
Nowadays there are over 14,000 quotations of Shakespeare in the Oxford dictionary and about 300 of the film versions of his opuses were made in the XX century.  Shakespeare is really great!
9. Heading to America
Figure 9. Mayflower
In 1620 the ship «Mayflower» (Fig. 9) came alongside the shores of New England (sometimes called America). This ship brought English pilgrims fathers with the English Bible who gave an oath to establish a colony there and spread the Christian faith.
However, they were not the first on that continent: there were already a large number of Indian people who spoke a huge number of indigenous languages. In addition, there were groups of people speaking Romanic languages: Spanish and French. It was a miracle that pilgrims managed to survive. They arrived in winter and wild, dangerous and land was unfriendly to them. Within a few weeks almost half of 140 people died from hunger, cold and diseases. Those who survived founded the village and settled there. They discovered new plants, animals, geographical features and needed new words to describe them. Some names originated from local languages, others were formed from a combination of English words, e.g.: raccon, skunk, opossum, potato-bug, bull-frog. When describing the life of Indians the preference was given to English words. It was more convenient and customary, e.g.: peace-pipe, Grand Chief, warpath. [5, pp. 223–225] It is worth noting that very few Indian words were accepted by the English language.
Perhaps the fear of the unknown caused them to use the names they were accustomed to, for example they used the following geographic names: Ispwich, Norwich, Boston, Hull. [3, p. 299] The pilgrims tried to recreate the abandoned home as accurately as possible. Later, they began to teach English to the natives and built a Christian school. This led to the fact that English began to feel superior to others and, the continent declared it to be its language.
The first book printed in America in English was «The Massachusetts book of Psalms». Pretty soon a stable pronunciation began started to shape.
Reading the Bible aloud and long sermons were very important to immigrants. Inappropriate speech was considered to be a crime.
In the XVII and XVIII centuries over 3 million copies of the «new England primer» (New England Primer) were sold, including copies for schools, and almost all English-speaking families were acquainted with this manual. Each settlement had about 50 people, and there was at least one teacher who could teach the children to read and write. Thus by the end of the XVII century English became the language of learning and communication on the Eastern coast of America.
The war brought new colonies under the dominion of New England. New Amsterdam became New -York, and New Sweden became the New -Delaware. Dutch roots is preserved in such names as Brooklyn and Harlem, as well as in the words waffle, coleslaw (cabbage salad with mayonnaise), landscape (as formerly in England), sleight (sledge, sled) and many others. The French language never wanted to leave without a trace and left it in such words as cents (pennies and dimes (coins of 10 cents). A great number of borrowings came from the Spanish language, which is a source of replenishment of English vocabulary nowadays: barbecue, chocolate, tornado. [5, pp.225–229]
The development of the American political system has also led to the emergence of new words: presidential, congressman, mass meeting. [5, pp.225–229] As the spread of American English has weakened its ties with the language spoken in England, they started to separate gradually. For example, in London the word lumber meant «junk», and on the East coast of America and it means «wood» even now. New language has acquired its own sounding, not allowing any of the brought dialects to dominate. This has led to uniformity of pronunciation. An interesting fact is that in 1781 John Witherspoon, the rector of the Princeton University, expressed his observation: «the Common people in America for obvious reasons, speak much better than in the UK... Dialects in different regions of England are much stronger than in different States of America». [5, p. 208] agreed. The writer James Fenimore Cooper agreed: " the people of the United States of America speak English...incomparably better than in the metropolis». [5, p. 208]
In 1775 the American revolution burst out. A year later 13 colonies declared their independence and the Declaration of independence was written, which many still be considered a masterpiece of English prose. To the moment of writing the Declaration of independence 4 million people were living in America lived. 90 % of them were poor white people of English origin. Political leaders of the new country decided to try to make their language the best in the world, which was not the language of kings, but the language of the people.
All the people who learn English have heard about the Webster's dictionary. It started with a small «American spelling guide», written by a school teacher! Thanks to the color of the cover it was called «the Blue guide» and was being sold for just 14 cents in Department stores. This book has become of a major importance for the English language development: it taught children spelling in schools. Being literate has become the norm of good education, and the famous American Spelling Bee competition was held throughout the country. Webster has simplified the spelling of some words. For example, he believed that the word wagon doesn't need two letters g and the word traveler — two letters l. And under his influence the words theatre and centre turned into a theater and center.
Despite the fact that pilgrims landed on the East coast of America, the English language also extends its influence on the Western coast, but, paradoxically, thanks to French! In 1804 President Jefferson on behalf of the United States acquired the French land, called in those days the Louisiana, and the territory of America has increased almost twice thanks to this purchase. New land attracted new settlers from Scotland and Ulster, where they were driven by natural disasters and high prices. The settlement of Western lands was accompanied by the resistance of the indigenous population — Indians. New words and expressions, such as war-path (path to war), war-whoop (battle cry), war dance (dance of the warriors before the battle) joined the English language. There is a hypothesis that the most popular word in the world «okay» came into English from Indian tribes and meant «Yes». [5, p.229]
In terms of West America, cowboys cannot be omitted! The word «cowboy» comes from the English of the thirteenth century and refers to the illiterate young man looking after the cows. In the American West as it has become a word of heroism and courage.
Slave -trade was not an epic page in American history. It was banned only in 1807. Slaves were brought by ships from different parts of Africa, where there were several hundred local languages. People could not always understand each other, so the language of their masters was the most suitable for communication. The English language had to put up with some words, coming from Africa, for example: chimpanzee, gorilla, zebra and others. [5, p.231]
10. Further to India
Figure 10. India
India (Fig. 10) was a hard nut to crack for the English language. It was the Empire where nearly 200 languages were spoken, such as Sanskrit, Hindi and Bengali. The country did not need additional language for communication literature, science and. It was practically a miracle, that the population started using English!
It is believed that the first native English-speaker stepped onto the territory of India in 882. He was the messenger of Alfred the Great, as it is mentioned in the «Anglo-Saxon Chronicles» and he brought the gifts for St. Thomas.
Trade was developing in the early middle ages, enriching English with words from India, for example: ginger, sugar, camphor, opal, loot, cot, pyjamas and others. [5, p. 316]
The British were actively intruding into India by means of trade and they had to learn, in turn, Bengali and Hindi. The village of Kolkata was one of the very first places influenced by the English language. English merchants founded a trading post there, which grew into one of the largest cities in the world.
At the end of the XVII century there still were not many people employees, who spoke English. Their number was only 2,000 people and the British had to learn local languages. And again the English language acquired such Asian words as: jowar (sorgo), dawk (post), tahdaree (Cathedral). [5, p. 324]
And only in the XVIII century the situation changed. By 1765 the Mughals recognized administrative and financial control of Britain in Bengali, the richest province of India. The British became masters and they no longer had to teach a foreign language, they could use their one. In 1813, the British Parliament adopted the law about missionaries and missionary schools in India, where English was taught to local population. The British were ruling and the English language was recognized.
In 1947 India gained independence. The fighters for national independence considered English to be a symbol of oppression. They were trying to kill it out. According to the new Constitution of India it was to remain official only until 1956, but this has not happened. The speakers of other languages in India rebelled against Hindi’s priority.
Currently in the country with the population over one billion people about 300,000,000 speak English in some way.
11. Settlement in Australia
Figure 11. Australia
The English language first landed on the continent in 1788. 723 convicts were brought to Australia and they had to to found a penal colony there. While there were about 250 local languages in Australia. Unfortunately, many of them have vanished. So there were 250 names for kangaroo then (Fig11).  There is a version that someone from the members of the Kuk’s expedition asked the Australian aboriginal in English, what was the name of this animal, and he said:»I don't understand what you're asking about». This phrase sounded like «kangaroo» and it has turned into an animal’s name. The English language has borrowed such words as: boomerang, dingo, koala. [5, p. 350]
Linguistic borrowings took place from both sides. When aborigines used English words, they sometimes mispronounced them greatly and these words were borrowed by the Australian dialect of English. For example, the word ‘jumbuck’ (sheep) is widely spread in Australia. It can be either distorted ‘jump up’ (jump), or ‘jumbuck’ (large white cauliflower cloud). Coming from the wild places of Australia, the word ‘walkabout’, which now means ‘hiking’ or ‘walking’, can be heard now and on the streets of big cities. [5, p.356]
For 80 years more than 150,000 English convicts were brought to Australia. Many of them have stayed in this country. Maybe because of this the Australians are so glad when they beat the British at sport events.
12. Current Situation
For many centuries, the English language have been successfully sustained and enriched by other languages, and now many loan words seem to be native English. Currently, English itself is enriching other languages!
Even our mother tongue Russian adopted a lot of English words, such as: sport, football, champion, finish, tunnel, boycott, leader, cupcake, computer, sponsor, supermarket and others.
Russian absorbed English words in 90-th, when economic, social and political changes took place in the society. They are: display, barter, broker, dealer, remake, underground, lobby, impeachment and the like.
An astonishing fact is, that some states, such as Brazil, want to prohibit the use of many English words and expressions, for example: the sale, spring, summer, overtime.
India supports Brazil in the opinion, that the widespread use of this language is a threat to their native one.
The strongest protest against the English language is in France. But, nevertheless, they say le weekend (weekend), un holiday (holiday), le parking (parking) and hundreds of English words! The interesting fact is that in 1994 the French government adopted the law prohibiting the use of English words if there are French equivalents. A huge fine is imposed to those people, who violate this law. [5, p.389]
The process of the English language transformation is not finished yet. Words from American English push out their British equivalents. For example: elevator (lift), wrench (spanner), pants (trousers), rookie (newcomer), apartment (flat). Some linguists consider it to be a threat to the ‘English Majesty’.
Another tendency of the modern English language is the usage of contractions. It is the general trait for all modern languages when a lot of information should be expressed by minimal language means. But «there are no so many contractions anywhere else other than in modern English», writes O.Esperen.  The examples of such words are: e-book (electronic book), rep (representative), admin (administrator), prop (properly), ec (ecomony), sci-fi (scientific fidelity) and others.
The author’s personal observation is the fact, that there is a great discrepancy now between spoken English and written one, especially with the language of science. The tendency of the spoken language is to simplification: in grammar (tenses are used more freely), usage of articles (they are omitted more frequently), sentences become shorter, etc. For example, out parents at schools were taught that ‘should’ is used with the first person singular to express future, and now it is a modal verb.
On the contrary, the language of scientific articles becomes more and more complicated with a lot of subjunctive clauses, rhetorical moves and sophisticated words. Sometimes, especially for a non-native speaker, it is very difficult not even to understand, but to grasp the idea of the subject described.
There are many speculations about the English language future. And this is the one worth looking at: the English language as we know it today, that arose in England, then refined in Britain and later in America, India and Australia, will be the mother tongue of only a small part of population, because new options of it are continuously being generated.
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