The use of task method of training of specialists in the field of geographic information systems
Рубрика: 9. Педагогика высшей профессиональной школы
Дата публикации: 28.05.2018
Статья просмотрена: 11 раз
Оракбаева А. Б., Шалбаев А. М., Кали А. Н. The use of task method of training of specialists in the field of geographic information systems [Текст] // Актуальные задачи педагогики: материалы IX Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2018 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2018. С. 73-76. URL https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/279/14293/ (дата обращения: 24.06.2018).
In modern education the personality of the student is put in the forefront, is amplify the understanding of its value. The main objective of education system is to help students to discover and develop those abilities which would allow them to realize themselves as much as possible.
The purpose of the article is to show the role of task method of training as necessary condition for development of competences of students in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Research problems are: to clarify the definition of «task method»; to identify possibilities of task method in the design of student activities; to prove efficiency of task method in formation of professional orientation of future GIS specialists.
The application of task method in preparation of GIS specialists allows to demonstrate to students the importance of the studied material in future professional activity. Therefore it has great importance for educational process. From here follows relevance of this research.
Keywords: task, geographic information systems, task method of training, professional training, educational technology, competence
Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I may remember. Involve me and I will learn
The direction of modernization of present education is the search of effective ways of training of specialists, one of which is technological development of educational process on the basis of task method .
One of the requirements of the present stage of modernization of education is to ensure the quality of education on condition of maintaining its fundamental nature and compliance to relevant and perspective needs of the personality, society and the state .
Modernization of education involves not only the students' assimilation of certain amount of knowledge, but also the development of their personality and abilities.
We will consider the simplest definition of GIS. GIS is computer system that is able to create, store and use data on the location of objects, events and phenomena on the Earth .
The basic purpose of GIS is the formation of knowledges of phenomena, processes on the Earth and their further application for solving the necessary tasks in all spheres of activity of human life.
GIS-education has specific features that distinguish it from other areas of training:
– cross-disciplinary character;
– wide range of applications;
– high information saturation;
– dual beginning: geographical and engineering .
Main types of professional activity in the GIS-industry are:
– collection, updating and dissemination of digital geospatial data;
– design of bases of geospatial data;
– design of geographic information systems;
– planning, management of geoinformation projects;
– design, exploitation and development of GIS;
– distribution of geoinformation services;
– professional geoinformation education and training in GIS-technologies .
Any knowledge was initially got by people in the process of the solution of some practical or research tasks. Presenting the content of educational class in the form of a cognitive task, the teacher immerses students in the natural situation of obtaining knowledge .
Task is the purpose which is given in certain conditions. The task organizes and directs the activity of student. It accustoms student to clear understanding of situation, statement of the purposes of its transformation, identification of conditions and resources which are necessary for this. The task is event that requires a transition from one life situation to another. Accordingly, the one who solves the task, expands his experience .
The use of practical subject tasks in education is the focus on creation of situations in which knowledges act as means of solving practical tasks. This is not the task in the traditional, academic sense, but a kind of vital and imitative situation in which students find the use of scientific knowledge in their usual, daily reality .
In GIS education the application of task method is especially productive. Therefore it is important to use production problems as practical tasks in the development of teaching materials in the field of GIS. Process of training of students has to be constructed on the basis of integration of theoretical course and practical course. This type of training will be as close as possible to the existing methods of production and technology of conducting works .
Task method of training has the regularities, the principles, rules and requirements. They are the reference point in work. We will list them:
- Completeness. Existence of tasks on all studied concepts, the facts, methods of activity.
- Existence of key tasks. Group of tasks in knots around the uniting tasks-centers in which the facts or methods of activity are considered. These facts or methods of activity which have principled value for the assimilation of subject contents are applied to solve other tasks.
- Coherence. All set of tasks can be graphically presented by the connected graph. In knots of this graph are located key tasks, above them — preparatory and auxiliary tasks, below — the consequence, generalizations and etc.
- Increase of difficulty at each level. The system of tasks consists of three subsystems corresponding to the minimum, general and advanced levels of the planned results of training. The difficulty of tasks continuously increases in each of the subsystems.
- Target orientation. Each task takes certain place and appointment in the block of lessons.
- Target sufficiency. There have to be enough tasks for training in classes and at home, similar tasks for fixing of methods of solution, tasks for group and individual tasks of different orientation, tasks for independent (research) activity of students, tasks for the current total control.
- Flexibility. The flexibility of task method consists in providing the possibility of adapting the content of training and ways of its assimilation to individual needs of students. It is necessary to provide the individual rate of assimilation, individual technology of training.
- Psychological comfort. The system of tasks considers existence of different temperaments, types of thinking, types of memory. Each task has to have the verbal, graphic, subject-illustrative decision. Student decides what is necessary for him and can count on success. It will enhance his educational motivation .
For realization of task method it is necessary to organize educational process pedagogically competently. We can distinguish the following requirements for the construction of system of tasks:
– the system of tasks must be constructed, but not one separate task;
– the system of tasks has to provide achievement not only of the nearest educational objectives, but also of farther;
– educational tasks have to provide assimilation of the system of means that is necessary and sufficient for the successful implementation of educational activity;
– educational tasks have to be designed so that appropriate means of activity, which assimilation is provided in course of the solution of task, acted as a direct product of training .
Teachers are sure «transfer of knowledge» is not the main goal on modern lesson. Such organization of lesson, where «ready knowledge» is given to students, is destructive to cognitive activity .
Student has to be put in conditions of search, delusions, joyful discoveries and chagrin of temporary failures. Intellection begins where there is the unknown, where there are difficulty and misunderstanding, error. Therefore, the teacher forms the lesson in such a way that the set of learning objects are divided into a number of the educational tasks which solved by students in common or independently .
The picture 1 shows the learning pyramid. It considers the retention rate of learners using different methods of learning .
Fig. 1. The learning pyramid
Despite big changes in education, «knowledge» approach in training is still traditional. According to the picture 1 it consists of lecture, reading, demonstration, audio-visual information. All this belongs to passive methods of training and helps students to acquire the training material for 5–45 %.
Training which is based on the tasks which related to the specialty allows to show the importance of the studied material in future professional activity. Therefore it has great importance for educational process . Such type of training belongs to participatory methods (discussion group, practice by doing, teach others). As a result student acquires 50–90 % of a training material.
The application of tasks in educational process expands possibilities of involving students in creative activity and serves as a good means of bringing training closer to life. In the conditions of the problem-task organization of educational activity students acquire the basic concepts of the course better. They develop competences.
Modernization of the education of modern society is aimed at search of effective ways of training of highly qualified specialists of various fields. One of the trends of modernization is technologization of educational process on the basis of task method which needs to be used at training of specialists not only in the field of GIS, but also in various directions.
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