Cultural heritage management as a factor in the socio-economic development of territories | Статья в сборнике международной научной конференции

Автор:

Рубрика: 4. Экономическое развитие и рост

Опубликовано в

VII международная научная конференция «Актуальные вопросы экономики и управления» (Санкт-Петербург, апрель 2019)

Дата публикации: 23.03.2019

Статья просмотрена: 43 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Алгафри М. А. Cultural heritage management as a factor in the socio-economic development of territories [Текст] // Актуальные вопросы экономики и управления: материалы VII Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Санкт-Петербург, апрель 2019 г.). — СПб.: Свое издательство, 2019. — С. 3-8. — URL https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/329/14936/ (дата обращения: 23.05.2019).



The concept of management emerged comparatively late in the forty year history of the World Heritage Convention. But the requirement to achieve the outputs and outcomes of successful management identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of heritage of outstanding universal value — has been there from the outset. This paper aims to identify the methods of successful management plan in cultural heritage sites, furthermore, to evaluate the elements of heritage management system. The paper shows that to achieve the successful management plan in cultural heritage sites, have to achieve balance between the local community and management elements.

Keywords: cultural heritage, management plan, planning, socio- economic development, sustainable development, heritage tourism.

Cultural heritage embodies the people's memory If we have this legacy of these peoples have lost their identity, have been subjected in recent times the magnitude of the material and moral values to the threat factors, not only by natural and environmental factors, but due to changes in the social and economic concepts to the human societies and reflection on how to deal with this heritage and understanding, which makes it a requirement to maintain a human requires the participation of all stakeholders, governments and individuals to achieve. The paper attempts to definition and importance of cultural heritage and how to achieve the successful of management plan of cultural heritage sites furthermore to achieve the sustainable development with helpful of the local community [2,3]. This paper tries to apply the socio- economy development in cultural heritage sites. The best management, which applied in the cultural heritage management that has balance between management, conservation and rehabilitation, on another hand the involvement of local community and stakeholders in management plan.

A theoretical framework: definition and importance of cultural heritage. Domestic and international attention to the cultural dimension highlights the importance of cultural heritage as one of the key sectors in the social and economic development of nations. They constitute a major force in the field of innovation and wealth creation and social change. Helped the emergence of interest in the role of culture and cultural industries have become a part of the country strategies. In addition to owning a heritage resource of the most important areas that caught the interest of cultural policy and cultural tourism [2,14,19]. While the cultural heritage site management is a way to control the elements that make up the social and natural environment of the site, physical condition, land use, visitors, interpretation, conservation, protection. «The aim of management to protect and preserve or, reduce exposure to risk or destruction, or offering the site to the public» [4,5].

Table 1

Management in cultural heritage sites (CHS) [6, 7, 9, 16,17]

Management in cultural heritage sites (CHS)

Management of Works of preservation, protection and restoration

Management of researches and studies about site

Legal management

Regulation Administrative

Financial management

Human resources management

Marketing management

Technical management (works, security, safety, maintenance and reception(

Visitors management and rehabilitation of a tourist site

Projects management of rehabilitation

Risks management

Projects management and heritage development

According the international organizations cultural heritage definition is: all the architectural works, sculpture and painting, the inscriptions, the groups of buildings, works of man and archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view [8,18]. The definition of cultural heritage management plan. The management plan (MP) is different according the type and characteristics of the cultural heritage management plan sites, according the ICOMOS, «A management plan is a document specifying in detail all the strategies and tools to be used for heritage protection and which at the same time responds to the needs of contemporary life. It contains legislative, financial, administrative and conservation documents, as well as Conservation and monitoring Plans» [1,11]. A cultural heritage management plan assesses whether a project will have any impact on Aboriginal cultural heritage values and, as appropriate, outlines management recommendations [8,10]. On another hand, a management plan «is a relatively new tool which determines and establishes the appropriate strategy, objectives, actions and implementation structures to manage and, where appropriate, develop cultural heritage in an effective and sustainable [12,17].

The management system includes cycles of planning, implementation and monitoring in order to deliver activities addressed to conservation, interpretation and access which often have a broader agenda in mind, such as sustainable use and benefit-sharing» [13, 16, 17]. ICCROM suggested a standard format for planning in the management guidelines for world heritage sites, with three separate parts: (1) a description of the site; (2) evaluation and objectives; (3) (Table 2), put remedies, together including a mandatory preface summarizing the status and context of the site [11,13].

Table 2

Phases of management planning process [6, 9, 10, 16]

PLAN

PROCESS I

PROCESS II

PROCESS III

Burra charter (1991)

Understand

Significance

Development

Policy

Manage

Guidelines for ICCROM (1993)

Description

Analysis and Evaluation

Put remedies in all management steps at the site

Michael & Sharon (1995)

Location,

Identification,

Documentation

Assessment

Planning

Decision making

Implementation

New Guidelines for ICCROM (2005)

Documentation

Analysis

Response

Burra

сharter (2013)

Understand

Significance

Development

Policy

Manage in Accordance with Policy

The planning process, on the other hand, has strong links to implementation and monitoring and they can unfold in parallel, because the management plan is not a static document but requires constant review. Implementation and monitoring are separate processes [Figure 1].

Fig. Cultural heritage management plan [5,9,11]

Cultural heritage as a contemporary development asset. The broader concept of economic development pertains not only to the long process of quantitative but also qualitative changes in the economy (e.g., increase of diversity of goods and services offered in a given locality, their uniqueness and quality, changes in employment structure, management and production, the use of new technologies and management solutions), which may but do not have to be accompanied by quantitative changes [10,15]. It is reflected in three principal ways: income changes (income of local residents, local authorities and local entrepreneurs), structural changes in the economy and changes in the standard and quality of life, including changes in the state of preservation and the quality of natural and cultural environment [14](Table 3).

Table 3

Understanding cultural heritage as a development resource and the evolution of approaches to development [6, 15, 20]

Develop-ment paradigm

Approach to heritage in the context of development

Areas of heritage impact regarded as important

Methods of measuring development

Heritage values regarded as important

Economic growth

Selected aspects of heritage used for commercial purposes, in the production of goods and providing services; directly sustaining and creating workplaces mainly in the heritage institutions and tourism sector

Direct economic impact

Quantitative measures

Use values

Economic development

Broader economic potential of heritage and its role in the structural changes in the economy

Direct, indirect and induced economic impact (multiplier effects, including tourism multiplier) Development of knowledge and creative economy Image of place

Quantitative and qualitative measures

Use values

Cultural values

Socio-economic development

Broader economic potential of heritage and its role in the structural changes in the economy Impact on the standard and quality of life

Direct, indirect and induced economic impact

Development of knowledge and creative economy

Image of place

Standard and quality of life

Urban/rural regeneration

Quantitative and qualitative measures

Use values

Cultural values

Sustainable development

The diverse uses of heritage for the needs of both contemporary and future generations Inter- and intra-generational equity; an only partly renewable resource

Direct, indirect and induced economic impact

Development of knowledge and creative economy

Image of place

Standard and quality of life

Urban/rural regeneration

Interaction with and impact on the natural environment

Quantitative and qualitative measures

Use values

Cultural values

Non-use values (existence, option, bequest)

There are direct economic impacts of cultural heritage related to income and employment generation resulting from activities linked to heritage preservation, conservation and interpretation or provision of heritage services and functioning of heritage institutions (museums, libraries, archives, heritage interpretation centers). There also appear indirect and induced impacts on income, maintenance and creation of workplaces in a given municipality or region (multiplier effects), including tourism multiplier, income of the public sector as well as impacts on the real estate market [Table 4]. Secondly, longer term impact of heritage linked to its potential to support knowledge economy, be used as an educational resource, stimulate creativity, develop cultural capital or inspire high quality original products and services in the cultural sector, creative industries and tourism.

Table 4

Potential areas of cultural heritage impact on socio-economic development [9,15]

Potential areas of cultural heritage impact on socio-economic development

Economic impact

— direct income generated by heritage — related activities (preservation, opening up to the public, interpretation);

— multiplier effects, including tourism multiplier (indirect and induced creation of income and jobs);

— support for structural changes in the economy;

public sector tax revenues;

real estate market;

local community's standard and quality of life:

— response to higher level needs (aesthetic, spiritual, cultural,leisure);

— impact on social cohesion and creation of social capital;

— strengthening of local identity and sense of pride.

Environmental impact:

— coexistence and overlapping of cultural and natural values;

— anthropology nice impact/ impact on numbers of visitors and users (trafic, infrastructure, wear and tear);

— potentail conttribution to avoiding or limiting urban spraw.

Urban and rural regeneration processes:

— inspiration and catalysis;

— role as a flagship project with in a broached regeneration strategy;

— rele as a backdrop to regeneration processes

Local image and branding:

— among tourists;

— among entrepreneurs and investors;

— among residents and potential residents (internal marketing).

Support for the development of the knowledge economy:

— educational uses of heritage;

— development and maintenance of individual cultural capital, human capital and creative potential;

— inspiration for orginal products and services provided by cultural/ creative industries.

Economic development. Tangible cultural heritage was the first to be recognized for its value as a driver for economic development as also the first cultural asset to be considered “bankable”. Already in the 1970s, both UNDP and the World Bank started to justify investment in cultural heritage preservation on purely economic grounds, and by 1980 it had become commonplace to speak of a “heritage industry”, especially in combination with the rising tourism industry [12,17]. Currently, the link between heritage management and economic benefits has been endorsed by a number of international studies, and cultural heritage is increasingly recognized as an important source of income and a generator of both employment opportunities and tourism flows. Experts have suggested, indeed, that cultural heritage could represent a potential engine for a country’s economic development igniting local economic activities in a number of sectors [4,6]. An effective heritage management and development projects would indeed represent a direct economic contribution to culture related activities, in terms of promoting both cultural goods and services. It would furthermore generate an indirect economic impact, addressing in particular the transition from a subsistence economy with very low income towards an economic model with higher added value, supporting the development of service delivering sectors. The direct economic impact of cultural heritage involves activities in which heritage enters as an essential component — as the management of archaeological sites and museums, the restoration and use of historical buildings, the use of traditional technology and know-how, decoration or crafts, and activities related to cultural tourism as the production of audio-visuals and publications. These activities promote the employment of local resources like artists and culture professionals, independent entrepreneurs, cultural associations, training facilities and natural resources and furthermore generate goods and services that are valued in economic terms [15].

Moreover, there are additional, albeit indirect, economic benefits in other sectors linked to the cultural heritage field, above all the service sector: technical services providers, administrative and financial services, cultural tourism-related services, transports, goods and services related to the accessibility of heritage sites and so forth. When a heritage site is properly restored and promoted, it becomes indeed a development pole for tourism, culture, trade and entertainment activities, as well as for hotels, restaurants and other service supplying facilities. This not only helps the economic sector to grow, but also contributes to the development and improvement of the image of a city or region, which would eventually attract visitors and potential investors. Studies have also shown that one of the criteria considered by international companies when choosing the location of their operations abroad is the socio-cultural environment and quality of life, which — as mentioned in previously cited UN resolutions and conventions — depends on, among other factors, the level of conservation and promotion of the local cultural heritage [15]. Cultural heritage also contributes as a driving force for economic development of peripheral or rural regions since management and restoration projects also impact displays of intangible cultural heritage such as traditional manifestations and cultural events. Especially festivals and other artistic events summoning the general public taking place within cultural heritage sites — represent an important source of income for local businesses and positively impact economic activities in all sectors in the area.

Social development. Cultural heritage, with its identity-promoting role and civilization dimension, could serve as an asset towards the accomplishment of such vital goals development process [15]. If preserved and promoted, cultural heritage contributes indeed to strengthening the identity and sense of belonging to a group, and promotes diversity, intercultural and interfaith dialogue creating social cohesion through better understanding and respect between peoples. The promotion of local cultures, traditions, identities, as well as differences and commonalities, through safeguarding cultural heritage, could act as a factor to enrich communities, fortify mutual understanding and trust, and contribute to a complete and balanced human and socio-political development.

Cultural heritage sites act as a medium to enhance social integration and cohesion through the identification and promotion of a common history and shared cultural values among local communities. Sharing common values fosters the sense of belonging to a same group, and is a key element for integration, pride, unity and stability at local, regional and national levels [15].In the context of political and/or social marginalization of minorities, projects related to the conservation and promotion of heritage sites would raise awareness on issues such as human, cultural, and minorities’ rights, discrimination and inter-ethnical violence. Cultural projects proved indeed to be very effective in encouraging mutual understanding, social cohesion and civic participation, as well as strengthening human, cultural and minorities’ rights. In addition, they help reinforce the democratic process and the governance structures at both local and national levels [3,5,11]. The safeguard of cultural heritage is for a country to work towards the recovery of a collective memory and a common identity, and through this effort create social cohesion and harmony. Preserving the cultural heritage means therefore to contribute to a better mutual understanding and to trust building amongst different communities present on a territory, each with their specific identity.

Conclusion. Tourism is the most obvious way of using heritage for the purpose of local (regional) development but not the only, the unavoidable nor the most sustainable one. Heritage tourism should not be seen by public authorities as the only promising function of historic areas and sites, nor the only economic activity bringing profits to the local economy, as a much more multidimensional approach to heritage as a contemporary development resource is needed. As key institutional actors, public authorities (especially local authorities) should also be aware of the multiplicity of duties awaiting for them in terms of sustainable heritage management.

The encouraging certain activities of other actors by creating incentives for development of certain, “desired” forms of heritage tourism activities and services, proper heritage restoration and interesting heritage presentation activities (e.g., tax breaks and allowances, grants, awards and prizes, partnerships, establishment of networking and promotion agencies, activities linked with promotion of heritage and eco-tourism). Creating institutional frameworks and promoting a given area for heritage tourism public authorities should however be aware of the fact that the strength and scope of economic and non-economic impacts of heritage tourism on the local milieu is dependent on many earlier mentioned factors, firstly the features of the locality itself (e.g., its heritage resources, population size, needs, skills and attitudes of the local community). Both potential gains from and costs of tourism (including opportunity costs), taking into account all dimensions of development economic, social, cultural and ecological, as well as the stage of development of tourism traffic should be considered.

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Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): ICOMOS, UNESCO, ICCROM, PROCESS, CHS, IUCN, UNDP, III, PLAN.

Ключевые слова

sustainable development, cultural heritage, management plan, planning, socio- economic development, heritage tourism

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