New pedagogical technologies are introduced at present, which contribute to development of a student’s personality, forming their thinking, skills to develop the strategy of solving both teaching and practical tasks and realizing adopted decisions on basis of remodeling learnt objects and processes.
The new pedagogical technologies are connected with optimal build up and realizing teaching process with evaluating purposes. The next stages are distinguished:
– setting goals and their maximal elaborations, formulation of teaching purposes with orientation of achieving results;
– preparing teaching materials and organizing all the process in accordance with teaching purposes;
– assessment of current results, correction of teaching, directed to achievement of set goals;
– final assessment of results.
Thus, teaching technology is a sequence of procedures and operations, composing whole didactic system in total, which realizes achievement of guaranteed purposes of teaching and educating in pedagogical practice.
The idea of whole conducting the teaching process leading to following resolution of problem by managing teaching process with precisely present aim and exact description and definition.
Systemic approach to teaching as essential characteristics of conception «pedagogical technology» is referred in definition UNESCO, in which pedagogical technology is systematic method of formation, applying and discriminating all the process of teaching and knowledge assimilation with a glance to technical and human resources and their interaction, optimization of education form as their task.
A lot of authors note the term «pedagogical technology» has variant reading in comprehension and usage in Russian pedagogical literature.
Bespalko V. P. [1:39] defines pedagogical technology as a complex of aids and methods of reproduction of theoretical well-founded teaching processes and education, allowing to realize raised educational purposes. B. T. Licher considers [2:89] pedagogical technology to be a complex of psychological-pedagogic installation, assigning a special set and composition of forms, methods, techniques, ways of teaching, educational aids: it is organizational-methodical tools of pedagogical process. According to M. V. Clarina, pedagogical technology means systemic complex and order of functioning of all personal instrumental and methodological aids, used for progressing pedagogical aims, G. K. Selevko [3:16] liberates the following aspects in «pedagogical technology»:
– Scientific: pedagogical technologies- a part of pedagogical science, studying and designing targets, content and methods of teaching and designing pedagogical processes;
– Processual-descriptive: specification (algorithm) of process, complex of purposes, content, methods and aids for reaching the planned results of teaching;
In educational practice the concept «pedagogical technology» is used at the next hierarchic inferior levels G. K. Selevko:
General-pedagogical (total didactic) level: general pedagogical (total didactic) technology characterizes whole educational process in the given region, educational institution, in a definite step of teaching. Local (module) level: local technology presents the technology of separate p [arts of educational process, resolution of private didactical and educational tasks. Finally any pedagogical technology must satisfy principal methodological requirements (G. K. Selevko):
Conceptuality. Every pedagogical technology must be supported with certain scientific conception, including philosophical, psychological, didactical and social pedagogical ground of achieving educational aims.
Systematic approach. Pedagogical technology must possess all signs of system: logic of process, interrelation of all its parts, entirely.
Management suggests opportunity of diagnostic goal-setting, planning, projecting of teaching process, step-by-step diagnosis, ringing the changes on means and methods, with purpose of remodeling of results.
Effectiveness. Up-to-date pedagogical technologies exist in competitive conditions and must be effective on results and optimal on consumption, ensure accomplishment of certain standard of teaching.
Capability to be reproduced implies a chance of applying(repeating, reproducing) of pedagogical technology at other single-type educational institutions with other subjects.
In the special literature are introduced some classification of pedagogical technology by V. G. Gulchevskoy, V. P. Bespalko, V. T. Fomenko etc. a short description of classification groups composed by the author of system is under-mentioned.
– According to appliance are distinguished total pedagogical, frequent methodical (subject) and local (module) technologies.
– According to chef factors of mental development: biogenic, sociogenic, psychogenic and idealistic technologies.
Today it is generally admitted that personality is the result of collective influence of biogenic, sociogenic, psychogenic factors, but a concrete technology can take into consideration or stake one of them, consider it to be a main one.
In principle there is not so many technologies, which would use just a single factor, method, principal- pedagogical technology is always complex.
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