This article provides detailed information on the psychological and pedagogical characteristics of children with autism, their level, the description of the degree of the disease. It also provides statistics on the number of children with autism worldwide.
Keywords: autism, syndrome, disease, psychological traits, degree, health care organizations.
Decreased development is a decrease in innate or premature cognition. Developmental delay is a general term for a variety of conditions and diagnoses of impaired ability to learn and cope within a community. In the United States, «developmental delay» is used to describe mental retardation, cerebral palsy, autism, and various genetic and chromosomal disorders (including Down syndrome). In the United Kingdom, the term is used interchangeably with the term 'cognitive impairment'. Elsewhere, the term is often referred to as «mental retardation», just as we use the term «developmental retardation» in this source.
Developmental delays are a form of impairment that occurs in about 1 % of the child population. In most countries, children with developmental disabilities are grouped according to their IQ. In many parts of the world, these children are out of place in society and deprived of all formal education. This practice is one of the biggest problems of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006).
Developmental delays can be divided into 4 general levels:
– Slow developmental decline — the child is able to hear and speak, but understanding certain ideas may have some difficulties and some limitations in pronunciation. She is able to integrate socially and live an independent life after graduation.
– Behavioral developmental delays — the child is able to speak, participate, and communicate actively in the classroom. It is also helpful for her to learn daily or independent living skills, especially social skills.
– Decreased development: the child is able to understand simple communication with signs and facial expressions, but is limited in verbal expression. Although many children face major challenges in independent living, some of the challenges have been overcome.
– Emergency developmental delay: communication skills are very limited. Communication is often done through different sounds. And for some as a baby gets older, he or she will outgrow this. Most children need care and attention day and night.
Remember that all children can learn (if the word learning is broader than reading, writing and arithmetic) and have the right to knowledge, care and protection in a friendly and inclusive system important. A number of shortcomings are also observed in the behavior of children with mild levels of mental retardation as a result of disturbances in the balance of neural processes, cognitive activity. Due to the imbalance between arousal and braking, some oligophrenic children become overly active, lively, cheerful, and in children with a predominant braking process, on the contrary, passivity, lethargy, indifference, indifference to anything are observed. and so on.
Mentally retarded children do not understand the situation well enough to change their behavior according to the situation. They are less critical of themselves and those around them. Despite a number of shortcomings mentioned above, as a result of properly organized special educational work with mentally retarded children, correctional educators are making great strides in preparing them for independent living and vocational training. Educated in special secondary schools, children find their place in life and are active in various spheres of industry and agricultural production, as well as in the field of household services. An important task of educators and teachers is to separate oligophrenic children from other children with special needs and ensure that they are educated in appropriate institutions as early as possible.
Communication between speech pathologists and parents is provided by social educators. Many schools have programs for the psychophysical development of children under the age of three, and parents work on this program from the earliest days of a child's life. In this way, the problem of teaching and educating mentally retarded children will be solved in various ways, for which a multidisciplinary program will be created. These are special schools, classes and day centers. One of the characteristics of such institutions is to maintain regular contact with the child and family. Some of the children, mostly children with severe mental disorders, are brought up in family nightclubs.
Children with Down syndrome. The number of children diagnosed with Down syndrome is significantly higher among children with severe mental retardation. The disease is associated with chromosomal pathology, in which a human cell produces 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Babies born with this diagnosis have a 1: 600–900 ratio. Half of these are born with heart disease. Similar children make up 30 percent or more of the total number of foster children in special institutions. The appearance of children with Down syndrome has the following characteristics: narrow eyes with raised outer corners, a small «button» nose, red cheeks. The mouth is semi-open, the tongue is thick, with skin folds and deep ridges, the teeth are broken and open, the skull is smaller than normal, the forehead is cut, and the fingers of the hand are very short.
Many of these children suffer from hearing and vision impairments. Deafness in children with Down's syndrome (occurs in 60–80 % of cases) is significantly higher than in children with other forms of mental retardation. About 50 % of children with Down syndrome cannot see far, and 20 % can see far. They include epicartesis, astegmatism, confusion, and more. These aspects of children should be taken into account when organizing the educational process and choosing teaching methods. There is no single view in the specialized literature on the possibilities of developing children with Down syndrome. Some authors, especially psychiatrists, point out that these children develop very slowly and difficultly, and their development stops completely at the age of 12–14 years, while Defectologists point out that these children develop, albeit slowly, under the influence of special education.
Down children are different from other mentally retarded children. Children with Down syndrome have more motor impairment. They are characterized by awkward movements, gait, and high flexibility of the joints. There is a delay in the development of basic static functions (holding the head, sitting, standing, coordination), as well as the more difficult the movement, the delays in its acquisition and execution. These children have pronounced balance problems. Children with Down syndrome, like other mentally retarded children, can tell by the shape of an object, but the results of object recognition are worse in these children. This condition is explained by the underdevelopment of finger movements in children with Down syndrome.
This category of children has much less passive and active vocabulary than other mentally retarded children. Children with Down syndrome used nouns and verbs twice and other auxiliary phrases one and a half times less when reciting simple texts. Only the adjective phrase was used in conjunction with other mentally retarded children. (A. R. Maller). Recent research has shown that Down's speech system in children is not fully formed, only its individual aspects and functions are used.
In children with Down syndrome, emotions are more important than intelligence. Many of them are familiar with feelings such as anger, fear, joy, sadness, but the emotional reaction to the event that aroused these feelings is very necessary and does not correspond to this cause, and sometimes a strong grief is observed for a trivial reason. Some of these children have epileptic features of the character: egocentrism, extreme purity, aggression. But most of them have positive qualities: they are gentle, friendly, kind, gentle. The emotional stability of children allows them to effectively carry out correctional and educational work.
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