The following article investigates the literature of children. Furthermore, the author tries to link the folklore of children inextricably.
Key words: folklore, literature, works, fairy tales, creativity, tongue twister.
В данной статье исследуется детская литература. Кроме того, автор пытается неразрывно связать детский фольклор.
Ключевые слова: фольклор, литература, произведения, сказки, творчество, скороговорка.
The child perceives the first feeling of kindness and tenderness, listening to his mother's lullaby, like her warm hands, gentle voice, gentle touches.
The word «folklore» comes from the combination of two English words: folk — people — and lore — wisdom. And this wisdom of the people should not disappear, but should be preserved if we do not want to lose our originality, and maybe even independence.
The history of folklore goes back to ancient times. Its beginning is connected with the need of people to realize the surrounding world of nature and their place in it. Children's folklore preserves traces of the worldview of each nation in different periods of history. Thanks to folklore, the child more easily enters the world around him, more fully feels the charm of his native nature, assimilates the people's ideas about beauty, morality, gets acquainted with customs, in a word, together with aesthetic pleasure he absorbs what is called the spiritual heritage of the people, without which the formation of a full-fledged personality is impossible.
Through oral folk art, the child develops a need for an artistic word. Therefore, it is no coincidence that an important point in working with children was a wide acquaintance with folklore. Children's folklore includes both the creativity of the children themselves and the works that are compiled for children by adults. This division occurs due to the fact that the playing and rhythmic-intonation skills of children depend on their ages. At an early age (from the first days of birth to 3–3.5 years), the emotional, motor and mental development of a child depends entirely on adults. Adults perform lullabies and various nursery rhymes for young children.
The second part of children's folklore is composed of works for middle-aged and older children. These include works that are sung or rhythmically pronounced: songs, teasers, counting rhymes, fables, chants, comic songs, as well as sayings, tongue twisters, riddles, fairy tales. Some of them are compiled by adults for children, but most of this type is the creativity of the children themselves.
All genres of children's folklore can be roughly divided into three groups:
- works created by adults for children,
- works that have passed into children's folklore from general folklore,
- works of the children themselves.
In some cases, there are works that cannot be attributed to one group. Each of these groups has its own characteristics and is divided into smaller subgroups. A common feature of all of them is the children's theme, they are designed for children under 5 years old.
One of the important research topics is children's mythology, the mythological component of children's subculture. The study of the ritual and mythological genesis of children's poetic classics made it possible to trace how the poetics of children's folklore was formed as a playful one. The search for «beginnings», the prototype of the question-and-answer structure of children's folklore was carried out in some materials. The study of the cumulative form with its many different and multivariate types of repetitions testifies to how the rite and myth, having survived only at the genetic level, determined the style, structure and tropics of the existing game text, became the primary source of its poetic imagery. An acoustic image, an acoustic characteristic as one of the components of the general picture of the world in children's folklore is its sound speech, which for the first time turns out to be the subject of study. The four distinguished groups of phrases make it possible to trace the evolutionary antiquity of this figurative layer and indicate the presence of myth as an essential element of poetic language. The varieties of sound speech are studied not only as phenomena of the poetics of children's folklore within the framework of a particular genre, but also as phenomena of its specificity, due to the psychological characteristics of the development of children's thinking and speech. One of the most productive genres of children's folklore, perceived by literary creativity and preserved in the same genre quality in children's poetry, is the traditional lullaby.
There are numerous examples of mastering the poetics of the foremother, updated and enriched with an individual vision. The same type of folklore-literary interaction is the inclusion of such folklore genres as counting rhyme, riddle, tongue twister, fiction into the genre range of children's poetry. Another type of folklore reception is more widespread — assimilation, the use of one plan of poetics of certain genres in children's poetry. The most illustrative example is the counting rhythm, which has become the dominant feature of children's poetry.
At the same time, children's folklore, if we talk about it in the context of folk tradition, has its own characteristics. Children's folklore does not know a storyteller in the sense of the word generally accepted by folklore. Folklore knowledge, including not only the execution of the text, but also the situation in which it is reproduced, is determined not by the peculiarities of the child's memory, but by his play and activity. It is in the playful forms of behavior that the experience of many previous generations is reflected, combined with the creativity of a particular child.
Children's folklore are works created by children and used by them. But many works are invented and performed by adults for children (lullabies, fairy tales, nursery rhymes, tongue twisters).
Children's folklore existed and developed in direct connection with folk practical pedagogy. The concept of folk pedagogy acquired a terminological meaning in the works of Professor G. S. Vinogradov. He wrote that folk pedagogy is a set of skills and techniques used to form a personality. It is not so much a system as the sum of knowledge and skills. "
The people, through a special kind of creativity, took care of the child from birth, accompanied his childhood years until adolescence. This is the origin of the division of children's folklore, according to age. Time passes — the surrounding world changes, the means and forms of obtaining information change. Oral communication, reading books is being replaced by computer games, television programs, which does not always bring a positive result. And the conclusion suggests itself — it is impossible to replace the living word of communication with a fictional world.
The game gives an opportunity to establish itself in the environment of peers, develops restraint, responsibility, the ability to correlate one's desires with the needs of other children. Children, fulfilling the conditions of the game, are accustomed to a certain order, the ability to act on condition.
Uzbek folk tales also teach a lot, revealing to the child the peculiar flavor of Uzbek life, Uzbek customs, Uzbek speech. There are many instructive stories in fairy tales, but it is not perceived as moralizing, a lot of humor, which is not perceived as a mockery. The child strives to be like heroes helping those in trouble.
The use of children's folklore in communication with children prepares them for life in society and, in fact, becomes the first school of childhood and the first sprout of the preservation of Uzbek culture.
- Капица О. И. Детский фольклор: Песни, потешки, дразнилки, сказки, игры. — Л., 1928.
- Мир детства и традиционная культура: Сб. науч. тр. и материалов / Сост. С. Г. Айвазян. — М., 1994.