Everyday life of rural area Kazakhs during late socialism period (1960–1980 case study of Semirechie) | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: История

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №19 (309) май 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 08.05.2020

Статья просмотрена: 1 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Оразалы, А. Т. Everyday life of rural area Kazakhs during late socialism period (1960–1980 case study of Semirechie) / А. Т. Оразалы. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 19 (309). — С. 403-405. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/309/69764/ (дата обращения: 29.05.2020).



Over the past thirty years, significant changes have occurred in the domestic history of science. In order to maintain the country's independence, the problem of reviving the historical memory of the Kazakh people and awakening their national identity was raised. Based on the lessons learned, in order to correctly assess the future, the past history of the country began to be revised in terms of new views. Today, the problem of adapting the spiritual world of a nation to new challenges, which began from the first days of independence, has not lost its relevance today. In addition, he noted the importance of educating young people in the spirit of patriotism, educating universal values in them is an important factor in the formation.

Keywords: country, administrative, general-governorship, Kapal, agriculture, soviet government, scientists

The history of the Zhetysu in the colonial period was studied both in Soviet times and after. Historian scholars have studied the influence of colonial policy on the socio-political life, economy, social status and cultural life of the region and came to their conclusions.

Nevertheless, at the macro level of historical processes (for example, tribal, international relations, state structures) it is emphasized, and individual changes, views at the family level, small social groups went unnoticed. The development of new methodological tools for an accurate understanding of changes in the life of the country in a new context in a historical context has necessitated.

Currently, the focus is on the life of the “little people” behind the macrohistory. Researchers in social history are new to him. One of the directions is to turn to the history of journalism, to study the everyday life of an ordinary person, that is, his history how they react to various factors of the process and react to them. Twentieth century daily life history one area of historical science that has grown rapidly in the last quarter as one of the new research methods. The study of the history of everyday life is carried out through interdisciplinary communication. This mental history, sociology, anthropology, social, cultural and ethnic history, as well as historical psychology explains. The individual is considered the main person who creates, reproduces and changes the real reflection of the socio-political image of the past and present, as well as the creator of history. [2, с. 198–199].

Researchers note that, for example, the limitations of macrohistory in detecting changes in the lives of individuals, especially “small” ones in society, are limited, and that the features of microhistory are “a reflection of a human phenomenon, an attempt to overestimate it instead of historical processes” [3, p. 6].

The study of history in a microhistorical sense first began in Western Europe in the 60s of the twentieth century. Although an “industrial society” took place in the Western world during this period, it will soon begin to pay attention to the role of the moral factor in public life. Many who complain about shortcomings in public relations make demands begins. Young West German scientists who attracted public attention to this historical period begin to study the everyday life of ordinary workers, that is, the world of life [4, p. 368–371]. This is due to the fact that people's lives and their constant actions in everyday life reflect the image of the society in which they live, and the influence of political, economic, social and cultural processes on them. As well as everyday life of a person, this does not affect the general situation in society. Studying and analyzing this interaction between the everyday life of a person and society will allow us to show the diversity of historical processes and revise the events of the past from a new perspective. In this sense, the diary approach to the life of the rural and rural population in the Zhetysu district in the middle of the twentieth century opens up a deeper understanding of the progress of the region.

We, like us, must warn. In the twentieth century, the Zhetysu region, like any other Kazakh society, experienced a period of great change. Changes covered all aspects of society. These changes, of course, have long been considered the subject of research. Our goal was to turn these processes in Zhetysu into a learning object by using diary tools.

In 1961, Turkestan was founded on the basis of Zhetysu and Syrdarya regions and a Governor-General was created, but the region also became a legal colony of the Russian Empire. From now on, the Russian system and the law of governance in the region began to dominate. But the majority of the population was engaged in semi-nomadic animal husbandry, adhered to religion and thus all this was not enough for the full development of the Semirechye. Therefore, the formation of political and social support in new places the migration process has intensified the population of the region and the authorities have started to radically change the national composition. The religion and language, traditions and customs of different peoples in the Zhetysu region were deliberately relocated.

In fact, the relocation of representatives of other nationalities to the Zhetysu region began in the first half of the XX century, without the formation of the region. For example, in 1931, in the Sergiopol fortress from the Irtysh, to the northeast, and in 1947, the Cossack troops from Siberia were stationed in the Cape fortress. Also in 1954 there was a Faithful fortress, then the river Bank and mountains.

The fortress of Lepsi was built on the green grass in the valley where the Cossacks lived. The Kazakhs built The Leps fortress and it was called «Oizhailau», the Sarts and Nogais called the mountain» Shubar», and the Russians called the river «Leps».

The origin of the first settlers in the ancient Semirechye began to give damage and negative impact not only with the inhabitants, but also between the settlers, for Example, the construction of the Kapal fortress dates back to the Lepsi that flowed through the valleys of the Karatal river and there was a dispute over land between the tribes of Zhalair and Naiman. By the decision of the Governor-General V. D. Gorchakov Western Siberia the right Bank of the Karatal river the left side is attached to the naimans. But this decision did not satisfy the Zhalyair tribe, because they are located on the same river with Karatal, which they considered their ancestral home. After the establishment of the migration process was carried out intensively and systematically. Further, the issue of land, which is already causing controversy in Kazakhstan's society, has worsened.

Siberian Kazakhs were stationed in Sergiopol (Ayagoz), Urjar, Lepsy, Kapal, Bolshoy Almaty, Sofia (Talgar) and Sarkan stations, Arasan, Karabulak, Koksu, Ili, Maly Almaty, Kaskelen, Nadezhdinsk (now the city of Issyk-BL). On January 1, 1968, their number was 14,648.. There were 7832 men and 6816 women. These mentioned localities lived in the Middle of the Tarbagatai mountain ranges in the northeast and Or from Alatau to the southwest.

The government took into account the increase in the number of settlers in the future, and despite the fact that they have enough land, another 50 thousand tenths of land was allocated.

Those who came to the Kazakh land were given the best pastures for the settlers. This was mentioned by T. Sedelnikov at the beginning of the twentieth century: «From the middle of the XVIII century to the last quarter to the XX century, the colonization of Kazakh lands was carried out continuously. For the attraction of these centuries, 10 million lands were confiscated.

References:

  1. Джусупбеков С. Д. Город Верный: (Страницы истории).-Алма-Ата: Казахстан, 1980. — 215 с.
  2. Румянцев П. П. Уезды Жетысу. / Сост. Ж.Кариев., Алматы: ТОО «Жалынбаспасы», 2000. — 336 с.
  3. Востров В.В, Муканов М. С. Родоплеменной состав и расселение казахов: Алма-Ата: «Наука», 1968. — 255 с.
  4. Материалы по обследованию туземного и русско — сторожильческого хозяйства и землепользования в Семиреченсой области. Под.рукП. П. Румянцева. — Т. 1. Лепсинский уезд. – СПб., 1911. — С. 1045; — Т.2.-Капальский уезд. — СПб., 1913, — С.788.
  5. Волости и населенные места 1893 года / Петербург: Семиреченсая область-133 с.
  6. Тулекова М. К. “Жетісуөңіріхалқыныңәлеуметтік-демографиялықдамуы”: Тарихғыл. докт. диссерт. / Ғыл.кеңесші: Асылбеков М. Х. — Алматы, 2003.-395 б.
  7. Медешева И. Б. XIXғасырдыңекіншіжартысы — XX ғасырдың басындағыҚазақстанқалаларыныңтарихнамасы [Мәтін]: тарихғыл.канд...дис./ Қазақгуманит.заңун-ті; ғыл.жет. Төлебаев Т.Ә. –Астана, 2010.-152 б.
  8. Обзор Семиреченской области за 1893 год
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): Алма-Ата.


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