The current international situation, economic and political integration have led to the involvement of an increasing number of specialists in various fields of science and technology in the direct implementation of international scientific and technical ties, accompanied by a significant increase in cultural and business contacts-all this has shown its requirements for the nature of foreign language proficiency and speech etiquette, and thereby determined some of the principles and objectives of new teaching methods, in particular, foreign languages.
The conditions of foreign language communication in the modern world, when a foreign language is a means of communication, cognition, realization and gathering of information, predetermined the need to know all kinds of speech activity: speech etiquette and understanding speech in a given foreign language, as well as the rules of speech etiquette, reading and writing.
So what is speech etiquette in all its variety of stylistic options? In a narrow sense, it is a formula which provides adoption in a particular field that ensure inclusion in the speech contact, maintenance of communication in the chosen style among people. In a broad sense, these are all rules of speech behavior, all speech permits and prohibitions related to the social characteristics of the speakers and the environment, on the one hand, and stylistic resources of the language on the other. Speech etiquette sets the framework of speech rules within which meaningful communication should take place. However, even the use of conventional formulas requires sincere, friendly attention to the interlocutor. Speech etiquette is an important element of any national culture. In language, speech behavior, stable formulas of communication were made from a rich national experience, originality of customs, a way of life, conditions of life of each people. Speech etiquette is a set of verbal forms of courtesy, which you simply cannot do without it. As a complex musical instrument we play, referring to their friends, relatives, colleagues, passers-by. We include one or another list of communication, choose one or another style in the diverse conditions of complex speech interactions. We use the inexhaustible riches of our language. The national specificity of speech etiquette in each country is extremely bright, because the unique features of the language are superimposed on the features of rituals, habits, everything accepted and not accepted in behavior, allowed and prohibited in social etiquette.
The possession of speech etiquette promotes the acquisition of credibility, builds trust and respect. Knowledge of the rules of speech etiquette, their observance allows a person to feel confident and at ease, not to feel awkward and difficult to communicate.
Strict observance of speech etiquette in business communication leaves customers and partners a favorable impression of the organization, maintains its positive reputation.
Speech etiquette has a national specificity. Each nation has created its own system of rules of verbal behavior.
Etiquette is closely related to ethics. Ethics prescribes the rules of moral behavior (including communication), etiquette involves certain behaviors and requires the use of external, expressed in specific speech acts of courtesy formulas.
Compliance with the requirements of etiquette when violation of ethical norms is a hypocrisy and a deception of others. On the other hand, quite ethical behavior, which is not accompanied by the observance of the norms of etiquette, will inevitably make an unpleasant impression and will cause people doubts about the moral qualities of the individual.
In oral communication it is necessary to observe a number of ethical and etiquette norms closely related to each other.
First, it is necessary to treat the interlocutor respectfully and kindly. Do not apply to the interlocutor his speech offense, insult, express contempt. Direct negative assessments of the personality of the communication partner should be avoided, only concrete actions can be evaluated, while respecting the necessary tact. Rude words, cheeky form of speech, arrogant tone are unacceptable in intelligent communication. And from a practical perspective, such features of speech behavior irrelevant, since never contribute to achieving the desired outcome in communication.
Politeness in communication involves understanding the situation, taking into account the age, sex, official and social position of the communication partner. These factors determine the degree of formality of communication, the choice of etiquette formulas, the range of suitable topics for discussion.
Secondly, the speaker is required to be modest in self-assessments, not to impose his own opinions, to avoid excessive categorization in speech.
Moreover, it is necessary to focus the attention of the communication partner, to show interest in his personality, opinion, to take into account his interest in a particular topic.
Listening, we must respectfully and patiently treat the speaker, try to listen to everything carefully and to the end. In case of high occupancy, it is acceptable to ask for a call to wait or reschedule. In official communication it is absolutely inadmissible to interrupt the interlocutor, to insert various remarks, especially such which sharply characterize offers and requests of the interlocutor. Like the speaker, the listener puts the focus of his interlocutor, emphasizes his interest in communicating with him. You should also be able to express consent or dissent in time, answer a question, ask your question.
The purpose of teaching speech etiquette in a foreign language lesson is to develop speech skills that would allow the student to use them in speech practice at the level of conventional everyday communication. [1: 153] It is also important to develop students’ common language, intellectual, cognitive abilities, mental processes underlying the mastery of foreign language communication, as well as emotions, feelings of students, their willingness to communicate, communication culture in different types of collective interaction.
However, the skills of speech etiquette, as well as any other skills, are not generated by themselves. For their formation it is necessary to use exercises and tasks aimed mainly at the development of speech etiquette skills. [3: 141].
For every etiquette situation, there is a strategy of correct behavior, a strategy for misconduct and, most importantly, a strategy for adequate behavior. For the practical purposes of teaching foreign languages, stereotyped situations of speech etiquette have been singled out and developed (from the use of units of speech etiquette). Each situation is served by stable formulas and expressions. [2: 54]. The latter form a non-closed series of thematic groups of units of speech etiquette, such as: «Addressing someone», «Greeting», «Acquaintance», «Saying good-bye», «Apologizing», «Thanks giving», «Congratulation», «Wishing» Invitation, Suggestion, Request, Advice, Warning, Approval, Compliment, Talking over the telephone, etc.
In English-speaking society between cultural people, communication is conducted at three levels of politeness — official, neutral and familiar. Each level of politeness corresponds to its own style of speech, and therefore all polite words and expressions can be classified according to the stylistic trait and, accordingly, referred to the official, neutral and familiar styles of speech.
At the official level of politeness, polite communication is conducted in an official setting, where neither age, gender, nor personal dignity is of paramount importance, but the social position of the interlocutors and the positions held by them. The official level of courtesy is the norm in institutions, organizations, business circles, in education, health care, services, etc.
At the neutral level of politeness, polite communication is conducted between strangers, and between those familiar people who are not in formal or familiar relations.
Familiar level of politeness is characteristic for communication in family and relatives, as well as between friends and friends.
The communicative situation as a system ensures the novelty and diversity of information, creates incentives to say, that is, it is a content base that allows you to organize further collective communication. The development of skills and abilities involves the assimilation of social, situational and contextual rules, which are followed by native speakers, that is, where, when, why, how they say and what values are attached to individual etiquette statements depending on the situation of communication. All of the above testifies to the benefits of working on the phrases of speech etiquette.
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