Mediating between languages and cultures for better learning | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №15 (201) апрель 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 14.04.2018

Статья просмотрена: 17 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Каттабаева, Д. К. Mediating between languages and cultures for better learning / Д. К. Каттабаева. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — № 15 (201). — С. 228-229. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/201/49370/ (дата обращения: 19.01.2022).



The article is devoted to peculiarities of applying culture and language and different techniques in teaching English and its productive usage. The notion of culture has turned into a popular way to link macro-social phenomena to micro-social observation in the social sciences. A number of definitions of culture have emerged over the past 50 years. In the 1960s, social scientists viewed culture as closely related to human learning. Since that time, there has been an ongoing discussion on the definition of culture. Despite multiple attempts and continuous efforts to define the term “culture,” researchers have not yet come up with a single agreed-upon definition or a common denominator, because culture is a “very broad concept embracing all aspects of human life” (1, p. 15). The lack of an overarching definition presents foreign language teachers with the challenge of determining which components or segments of the target culture should be taught.

Research on teaching culture has shown that language and culture are closely related and are best acquired together. Brown (2007) describes the interrelatedness of language and culture stating “that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture (1). The acquisition of a second language, except for specialized, instrumental acquisition, is also the acquisition of a second culture” (2, p.189–190). Based on these findings, it is clear that language and culture learning are inextricably linked, but what role does culture play in language teaching. Lafayette noted that teachers spent the greatest amount of time and effort on teaching grammatical and lexical components of the language, leaving the culture as the weakest component in the curriculum. Strasheim concluded earlier that teachers spent approximately 10 % of teaching time on culture, whereas a study conducted 25 years later by Moore (2006) found that at least 80 % of the teachers surveyed indicated they were teaching culture more than half of their instructional time (3). Although teachers have begun to incorporate more culture in the lesson, the major concern that remains is finding effective ways for integrating culture and language that prepare the learners to communicate and collaborate effectively in the 21st century.

There has been no shortage of methods and approaches for teaching culture. These include the use of authentic materials, cultural capsules, culture clusters, culture assimilators, incorporation of proverbs, music, songs, celebrations of festivals, and finally, study-abroad programs. For example, Hughes proposed teaching strategies for cultural awareness that include the comparison method, culture assimilators, drama, TPR (Total Physical Response), newspapers, and media. Krasner (3) promoted observations through movies and other authentic materials, having students visit ethnic restaurants or sections of their hometown, presentations on the customs and traditions of L2 culture, and role-plays in which students demonstrate appropriate cultural behavior in a given situation.

Technology has changed the nature of instruction and learning. Teachers are exploring digital technologies to make learning more effective and engage students actively. Technology promotes socially active language in multiple authentic contexts due to its “accessibility, flexibility, connectivity speed and independence of methodological approach”. It gives foreign language teachers various opportunities to create better and more effective instructional materials to teach not only the language structure, but also the target culture. Students can take advantage of technology by learning in formal and informal settings through interactive social spaces. One of the alluring benefits of technology is that it provides authentic communication in an interactive environment that facilitates the teaching of culture. Through the use of interactive media, students become less dependent on the printed word and more engaged with authentic cultural content they can access and explore freely, because they have more control of the selection and application of materials and resources.

Pictionary game, T-scheme and video demonstration activities together with an inquiry learning approach allow students to interact directly with the second language and its culture without time and place restrictions and to explore and construct a deeper understanding of L2 cultural knowledge.

It was found that learning culture and holidays through videos, discussion and critical thinking were able to increase most students’ both receptive and productive abilities significantly. This may imply that the videos and pictures as a teaching tool was good for helping students enhance listening and speaking abilities. One is that they contain visual elements. That might be the main factor to help student increase listening abilities of real authentic materials. It means students perceived information via both their eyes and ears, this helped them gain most of the presented information, not only verbal but also non-verbal features and culture as well. With the visual elements, they could quickly and easily understand what the information was. The content through the pictures and video are authentic material, real- life language and also provides some enjoyable listening and good presentation. These advantages may be supported by the potential use of pictures and video and gained listening and speaking abilities.

In the phenomenon of Pictionary game and T scheme the students are more spirit and relax. While applying these methods, most of the students participate in the learning process. When we apply “Pictionary and T scheme”, students may look happy, enjoy and more relax. They have spirit to go in front of the class to be artist and they look happy. Many students may become active to speak up and they have bravery to describe about their handouts.

Learning through pictures and videos were able to increase most students’ both receptive and productive abilities at high level. By the application of the video and pictures as a teaching tool was good for helping students enhance listening and speaking abilities and it gave several advantages. One is that they contain visual elements. That was main factor to help student increase listening and speaking abilities. With the visual elements, they could quickly and easily understand what the information was. The content through the video and pictures are authentic materials, real- life language and also provides some enjoyable listening. These advantages may be supported by the potential use of video and gained listening abilities.

Using T scheme during the lessons is also good for developing learners’ critical thinking. Teachers divide the language learners in two groups and they work out advantages and disadvantages of the theme. Learners can work as team and this motivate them to be the first.

Even, learners are motivated by presenting as group different topics. With gestures they can try what type of topic they are going to present. These types of game also motivate them.

Learning language on the basis of culture can be hard going — for the teacher and the students. It doesn't have to be difficult or painful, however. You can teach English culture using fun learning activities and before you know it your students will be more than willing. How it works, you ask. Well, there has been a movement away from the traditional methods of teaching English culture through writing, rewriting and worksheets to using a more active approach through activities related to intercultural competence. Researchers have also begun to look at how and why these new methods work.

Use videos and pictures, as they will play an important role in language learning process by providing students the proper environment to activate students’ motivation and enhance their listening and speaking skills in their classrooms. And you can provide various Videos: movies, video clips, TV shows, news, TV commercials; for studying whether using various kinds of videos (genre) affect listening and speaking ability. A variety of videos related to the cultural items could help students learning language.

Moreover, teachers should try to use different modes of interactions. Each type of work-individual, pair and group- has its place in the language classroom as they can help effective language learning.

References:

  1. Brown H Douglas. Principals of language learning and teaching. Pearson education.2007
  2. I. Krasner. The role of culture in language teaching. Dialog on Language Instruction, 1999. Journal Articles
  3. Moore, Z. (2006). Technology and teaching culture: What Spanish teachers do. Foreign Language Annals, 39(4), 579–594.
  4. Seelye. N Ned. Teaching Culture Strategies for Intercultural Communication. Natl Textbook Co; 3 edition (March 1, 1993)
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): TPR.


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