Youth policy: World experience and Uzbekistan
Маткаримова С. М., Раджабов О. А. Youth policy: World experience and Uzbekistan // Молодой ученый. 2016. №13. С. 620-623.
In this article is analyzed the youth policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the base of world experience.
Key words: youth policy, “Kamolot”, “Kamalak”, Europian youth policy, the policy of youth CIN countries
During the years of independence in order to provide stable progress and national security as a significant part of state policy, the youth program policy is given special attention. From early days of independence by the initiative of the president of the republic, I.Karimov the strategy is determined on developing youth consciousness, their education and training, help them present their knowledge and capacity. The state policy concerning to the youth can be divided into three main stages basing on the research investigations on youth affairs in the republic.
First stage: As we have mentioned above, from early days of our independence the youth are given precious attention as the leading power of development of the society. On 20th of 1991 the law on ‘Basis of state policy concerning to the Youth’ was adopted. Up to nowadays, totally such as 22 laws, the government passes 16 Presidential orders and 10 decrees, 41 resolutions by the cabinet of ministers of the republic of Uzbekistan and 32norm and legal documents.
Second stage: This stage included the process of expanding opportunities to get well education, become better professionals, advantage the advances of modern science and technology and shaping the qualities of lateral mature person. There are more than 10000 secondary schools, 1392 academic lyceums and vocational colleges, nearly 70 higher educational establishments in the republic in action in order to reach the target.
Third stage: Using the chances to them the Uzbek youth are achieving great success in different fields. They are developing as the main force of establishing legal democratic state and free citizens’ society in the republic. As 19 million of 31million population of the republic consist of the youth generation.
The state youth policy of Uzbekistan comprises the followings:
Firstly, taking care of the youth no matter his or her nationality, race, language, social status, gender or education is the important task.
Secondly, legal and social protection of youth is significant.
Thirdly, supporting youth initiatives and warrant their independent choice of ways of realizing individual concern in the sphere of the constitution of the republic of Uzbekistan and its laws.
Fourthly, in developing the society, creating the programs concerning to the youth life of the Republic and youth participation in accomplishing them is paid special attention.
Fifthly, Basing on the principles of equality of right and duties, freedom and citizenship responsibilities is also taken into consideration. [1.p.3]
At present, the problem of the youth is the considered as the main problem in all countries of the world. The future respected place of the country and its competence are in the hands of the youth being trained today. Today’s world experience shows that the powerful specialists prerequisite the economic and political development of the state. Our respected president aims at entering the group of highly developed countries. The youth policy of the state plays important role in achieving this aim, providing social stability and economic development levels.
Studying world experience and analyzing it is very important in assessing the quality of the youth policy factors in social economic development. The experience of highly developed countries show that the state youth policy does not provide the income itself without any actions, but it is carried out as the constituent part of the social complex activity and its security. As the main founder of the system, the youth comes out into the field.
The state youth program was developed in a number of countries as a separate movement in 60–70th of XX century. In 1985 the resolution was passed by the General Assembly of the UNO on ’Main principles of shaping the Effective Youth Policy’.
In Europe different approaches to the accommodations and security system analysis for the youth became the content of researches by scholars M.Benks, D.Katler, L.Krisholm, R.Mackdonald, P.Uillis, A.Furlong [2.p.86.]. These scholars proved the idea of shifting to integrated youth policy from resource and problem focused policy according to the analysis of youth role in European society. The solution to the problems by foreign investigators supplied practical assistance to carry out state policy concerning to the youth in the country. They are the problems of employment, educational problems, moral- training problems, the problem of youth socialization and the youth’s value problems.
In European countries, the youth policy concerning to the all youth it gives special attention to the problematic youth. According to the rule, the youth are divided into two main groups: the youth at the age of 14 to 18 teenagers, from 18 to 27 grown- ups. As there several distinctions in youth groups ages [3.p.23].
The youth integration into society without any conflicts is the main aim of all countries youth policy in different parts of Europe. The successful realization of Youth state policy by the countries such as Germany, France, Great Britain, and Switzerland must selected out in European Union and European Council.
Even the form and content of the youth policy are the same; we can classify them into two main strategies.
- The state is the leader in realization of the Youth policy
- The equality of state and citizens’ society institutions in the realization of the implementation of the youth policy
In implementation of the youth state policy basing on state leadership the regulation of social- economic affairs system is carried out in France and Germany. In the Constitution of Germany, the state policy is implemented in local, regional, and national sphere. According to the federal laws of the government ‘Assisting the youth and children’, ’The Security of the Youth’ the programs are established in regional systems of the country. In these countries, non-government experts carry out the monitoring concerning to the youth problems. In its turn, it expands opportunities to establishing the long period or current programs by the responsible organizations. In order to protect the youth from negative influence of mass media the agreement is obeyed in spiritual-cultural training of the youth among local and federal sphere complex measures of the country in Germany.
In addition, in France, in general the youth are considered from 15 until 26. According to the subsiding principles in France, in order to support youth initiatives financially the program of ‘M Project’ is implemented. Every year more than one hundred youth take part in this project with more than 15–20 thousand initiatives. In cultural field, several cabinets of ministers are responsible for the program and a number of projected coordinated by them.
They are as followings:
‒ developing youth cinematography, shaping the future sense, organizing cinema and cartoon festivals.
‒ the project of creating opportunities to read books in order to develop personal cultural qualities, establishing small libraries in common youth centers and places and promoting awards for the authors of best sellers among the youth.
‒ Implementing ‘sports coupons’ for the children from disadvantaged family sectors to take part in different sports sessions and establishing sports infrastructure in regions.
‒ Organizing informative-advice centers for the youth
In successful accomplishment of state youth policy, the equality of citizens’’ social institutions and state, we can see the state action experience in Great Britain and Switzerland. The state but the non-government determine the general directions and objectives and public organizations are responsible for their successful accomplishment in these countries.
In Great Britain the youth matters are regulated by the ministry of education and children’s and youth committees under it, in Sweden the ministry of Cultural affairs deals with it. In British parliament there are no commissions dealing with the youth problems. In both countries the quality and open education is the main direction of the youth policy. In Sweden the secondary and higher education is free, but the scholarship is provided in the credit form, and a student can pay the credit back after graduating the higher educational establishment from personal incomes 4 percent per month. In decreasing the youth unemployment in Great Britain, ‘The new course for the youth’ project is coordinated in order to provide advice and support to identify the capacity and personal skills of youth for different specializations. In Sweden, the employment and teaching vocation and handicraft comes out from studying local labor market and business requirements and are solved in regional sphere. In general, the British youth policy model pays great attention to expanding opportunities for the youth and supporting tendency is peculiar, but at the same time, it cares about the youth not to be used to being spoon feuded.
The Sweden model of the youth policy is based on the principle of choosing correct branch or committee for the successful solution of the problems. Here, the public organizations are considered as the equal right cooperators of the society with the state in solution of the youth problems.
In CIN countries, the youth policy programs are considered as main state regulation and several social-political structures take part in the implementation of the youth state policy. For instance in Russian Federation, ‘the National council of Russian youth and children union’ has been organized. The national council consists of Whole Russia and regional organizations, the Corresponding council of the youth and children’s organizations’ [4.p.50]. In Kazakhstan, the most popular and multi-numeral organization is ‘Jas Otan’ which means ’Young Country’ and considered as the young section of political party’Otan’. In Kirgizstan, the organization ‘Kel-Kel’ (Arise) is officially considered as young citizens’ political movement. In Turkmenistan, the youth organization ‘Galkinish’ (arize) is considered as the powerful youth movement in the country, which was established in 1991, named after Makhtumkuli. In Tajikistan, ‘The Youth union’ organization is in political action.
In Uzbekistan, ‘Kamolot’ youth social movement organization was established on 25 of April in 2001. [5.p.120] This non-government and nontrade organization represents the youth council including the young citizens from the age of 14 until 30. Under the organization there is another children’s organization ‘Kamalak’ that include all Uzbek children from 10 to 14 years old. In addition, from 1998, the political party sections dealing with the youth have been in action in the country. At first the ‘Istikbol’ youth branch was organized as the section of the political party of People’s Democracy. At present, there are youth branches at all four political parties by the name ‘Yoshlar qanotlari’ (Youth wings).
As conclusion, we should point out that not paying attention to the youth policy might result in errors or problems with no solution. The investigations present that the youth have been the leading force in the public clutters happening all over the world, ‘colorful revolutions’ and in ‘Arabian spring’ tragedies in Arabian countries. The evil-minded forces are using the youth who are not fully developed as tool of achieving their target. In its turn, certainly, it concerns negatively to the social, economic, demographic development of our country.
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