About cultural basis of investigation of typical features of some traditional craft kinds of Ganja
Автор: Гасанов Эльнур Лятиф оглу
Рубрика: 18. Народное искусство
Дата публикации: 18.06.2015
Статья просмотрена: 8 раз
Гасанов Э. Л. About cultural basis of investigation of typical features of some traditional craft kinds of Ganja [Текст] // Культурология и искусствоведение: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, май 2016 г.). — Казань: Бук, 2016. С. 49-51.
Scientific article deals with the research of the basic features of craftsmanship traditions of Ganja from the cultural point of view.
Key words: Azerbaijan, craftsmanship traditions, culture, Ganja.
As in many places, production of wool, cotton and silk in and around Ganja made necessary emergence and development of weaving. Becoming weaving one of the ancient spheres of crafts in and around Ganja was connected with the rich raw material base here. Presence of useful plant species for textile, including cotton, high level development of wool area of agriculture-sheep and goat breeding, camel breeding, horse breeding, presence of cotton cropping in Middle Ages and finally, regular expansion of silkworm breeding in this area created a foundation for growth of weaving here. In addition, during the research work in Mingachevir, Gazakh, Shamakhi, Sargah, Pirsaat River Basin monuments there have been found whole and parts of weaving loom and different sizes of clay and bone samples that consist to weaving. Moisey Kalankatly notes, that, along the banks of the Kura River... there is a large amount of silk (mulberry tree)... and cotton. Arab author who lived in the X century Al-Istakhri gives big information about, that in Barda in ownerless gardens were cultivated mulberry leaves and silkworm, then mulberry silk sent to Farsistan and Khusistan for sale. His contemporary and fellow townsman Ibn Hovgal gives information about preparation of silk clothing from them... Also, Al-Istakhri provides detailed information about cutting of textile in Derbend.
The art of Textile materials, that concern to weaving craft, consists of spindle heads and needles. The remnants of dying from the Shamkir, Ganja,Shatal and Khunan proves development of dying here. Plant remains have been widely used in dying.
Wood treatment and trade of ornamentalist: In the territory of Azerbaijan the oldest samples of wood treatment were found in the territory of ancient Ganja. Around Ganja area — in the region of Lake Goy-Gol in the IV-III millennium BC have been discovered wooden thicker board, also wooden sugar bowl, that concern to the end of the II millennium BC, found in Mingechevir pitcher grave are material evidences of science thoughts. Along with the works and notes of medieval authors and travelers, a lot of material samples, found in the territory of ancient Ganja, also found in Mingachevir and concern to Middle Ages trough, ladle, wooden threshing board, shows that in Ganja wood treatment and sculptor art have a rich tradition. Wood treatment products historically have been represented in various fields of social and cultural life in Ganja:
- Kitchen appliances: trough, quadruped, rolling-pin, mortar and pestle, ladle, spoon, trough.
- Transport means: sleigh, car, and ski.
- Weaving tools: comb, face.
- Household tools: harrow, wooden plow, threshing board, spade, wooden shouvel, pitchfork, and rake.
- Musical instruments: saz, ud, tar, chamahcha, tambourine, drum.
Along with the mosque Cuma (Shah Abbas), that constructed in 1606, local samples of trade ornamentals, that built in Sheikh Javad Khan Street, that have 3 century history and was built in the nineteenth century in building of Sheikh Nizam Ganjavi’s (1141–1209) representatives Sheikhzamanlylar property and, that was restored in 2011, are attractive especial attention.
Metal treatment: (coppersmith, blacksmith, arm craft, goldsmith, currier, hatting, felting, cobbling). History and art of Azerbaijan people as rich and colorful as its nature. On decorations of this descriptive art are reflected spiritual world, living style, customs and traditions of our nation. These pearls of art on material preparing and processing techniques are divided into different kinds. Among these types of craft metal treatment is mostly developed and has ancient history. Abundance of local raw materials created favorable conditions for development of metal treatment from ancient times. In general, in the third millennium BC there was high culture of the Bronze Age in our country, and in the first millennium transition period from Bronze Age to Iron Age began. In that period in Azerbaijan there were appeared several branches of metallurgy treatment. Jewelries, daggers, arms, copper products and other samples of art have been treated so refined, that in nowadays they are protected as very valuable exhibits in famous museums in such cities, as Paris, London, Brussels, Istanbul, Tehran and other cities.
Works of art, made from metal, for their content and their form are divided into two major groups:
1) Products of art;
2) Household goods.
Household equipment, works of art, agriculture instruments, that made by Ganja crafts, have been executed into two main technical methods:
Made of precious metals gold and silver jewelries, that prepared by Ganja masters, are divided into 4 groups for wearing and putting:
1) Neck jewelries — it is included such kind of jewelries, that gold piece coin, imperial, cardamon or barley, ”iyirmibeshlik”(25), medallions,” bogazaltı” (woman jewelries in ribbon form), bracelets, different kinds of beads and etc.
2) Jewelries for arms and fingers — this group include bracelets, bangles and rings with various precious stones as (turquoise, rubies, pearls and etc.).
3) Head jewelries — skull-cap and others.
4) Jewelries for clothes.
In the first half of the XVIII-XIX centuries, as well as in other parts of Azerbaijan, in Ganja household objects, forging weapons and jewelries that made from metal were decorated with 6 technical ways.
- ”Basma“ (Pushing).
Pottery and brick production
Ancient and antique period: The formation of pottery on the territory of ancient Ganja is concern to the stages of ancient history. Basis on research works carried out by the various persons in XIX century and experts-archeologists at the beginning of XX century in old ruins of the city and surrounding areas there were found different samples of pottery.
First of all, there have been discovered, that initial ceramic production in Ganja and its surrounding regions are belong to the VIII-VII millennium BC. From the history point of view, these ancient clay vessels, belonging to the Neolithic stage, are differing from the pottery samples of the neighboring ethnic in number characteristics. These differences are seen in preparing technology, also in the area of external surface decoration.
From the construction point of view, samples of pottery, that concern to Antique period, also to the period of Hellenism in Ganja, differed in various forms:
- Pictorial vases
- Ceramic figures
- Connected dishes
Early Middle Ages: Pottery dishes, that concern to the first stages of Middle Ages of Ganja, are differ from the ceramic samples of Antique period in two features:
1) On shape.
2) For preparing techniques.
The main types of samples of ancient clay toys in Ganja regions are the follows:
- Zoomorf figures.
- Toy dishes.
The End of middle Ages and New Period. In this historical period in Ganja and its regions ceramic has following kinds:
- Building ceramic materials
- Unglazed ceramic products
- Glazed ceramic products
Construction ceramics: For Middle Ages and New period among pottery products of Ganja ceramic samples as clay construction materials have great importance. First of all, glazed bricks that used in construction of most buildings in the XVII-XVIII centuries, and also in great monuments and the main construction material- air-dried bricks, attracted attention.
In addition to the found samples in residential areas as a result of archaeological excavations, also were found a lot of brick spoilages. According to such kind mass finding of brick spoilages, we can make the conclusion, that the bricks used in construction of buildings in Ganja, were wares of local production.
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