The written works by touristsand other state representatives visited Central AsiaIn the past basing on their impressions help us to learn the history of the countray in that period.
As the dinasty of Khorezmian shakhs is the unseperable and important part of Khorezm history, the subject has been approached by the sevaral scholars of the neighbouring countries in order to study. For instance, Russian scholars V.Bartold valued the importance of Ibn Al Asr works and while collecting data for his workclaimed that he approached to the investigations with great honesty and criticle thinking which was rare at that time. When he hesitated in choosing one of the two contradicting points the historian offers two of them in his works.Besides, Ibn al-Asir not only dealt with the definition of events but also he informed about the cultural heritage of Easten people. He wrote true facts about the ideas and estimations, celebrities and writers dominated in different periods of time [1, p. 46].
In the preface of the book the author wrote that the name of the book doest fully correspond to the content of it. The author chose the mongolian invasion period as the important period of Central Asiaand the object of investigation. He approached to the history of Central Asia before the invasion according to his own purpose. But introducing with the literary sources on the subject the author showed that the investigators didn't make conclusions on basis of real sources. Without these sources it is impossible to identify the life conditions in Central Asia up to mongolion invasion. The book consists of preface, four chapters and appendix. The introductory part was dedicated to the critical commentaries and marks given to the sources on Central Asia about the historians, dealt with from arabian historian and cartographer to Temurids' historians. In the first chapter of V.Bartold's monograph, the historical sources, translations and extractions from XI-XV centuries are provided. the works done by the author on collecting the works by eastern historians' works are very important in studying the history of Central Asian people and setting up the historical science.
And S. P. Tolstov pointed out the Khorezmian shakhs dinasty in his book " По следам древнехорезмейской цвилизации» [2, p. 1948]. Another work by the author «Древний Хорезм» [3, p. 1948] (Ancient Khorezm) about the history of Khorezmshakhs, approached as an archeologist and according to V.Minorsky's explanation, in order to show the prosperity of Khorezm and great historical contribution of Khorezm, he set off some facts about the political and social history of their state.
Besides the scholars whose names are mentioned above, uzbek historian Iso Jabborov's pamphlet «The State of Khorezmshakhs» [4, p. 1999] was devoted to the 800th anniversary of brave commander of the regiment Jaloliddin Manguberdi's birth. During thousands of years, from ancient history Khorezmian people fulfilled the pages of history with their power and history, with rich events, khorezmian people from long history, told about the ancient state and its cultural history developed till the period of Great Khorezmshakhs. The work was written on basis of historical, archeologic, ethnographic references and sources.
The book «Fragments from the history of Central Asian people» [5, p. 1993] written by T.Saidkulov includes the facts about Central Asian people from ancient times till the 20th of XX century. In the book, the matters of historical science on Central Asia, ancient states organized in Central Asia, feudal relations,arabian and mongolian invasion and people's struggle against them, cultural development at that time, muslim renessance, then Temur and Temurids have been set forth by investigating the history of Central Asia in XVI-XIXth centuries especially in arabic, persian and turkish laguages.
The establishment, development and the collapse of Khorezmian-shakh's state system were the important process not only in Central Asia but also in middle ages Easten muslim history. For this reason, several investigations were devoted to the subject. For instance, from foreign scientists, turkish scholar Ibrakhim Kufas ugli, in his book «The History of Khorezmian-shakhs' state» (485–618/1092–1221) [6, p. 1992], set forth of social-political and military events in certain order.
There are a lot of information on this subject in works written and published in English. For instance, «Capturing unveiled (Chapter I on Chingizkhan and Sabutay)" [7, p. 1927] by Liddle Heart are known to most of scholars in the world.The author payd special attention to the invasion of Mavarennarkh by mongolian invaders.
Another English scholar,K.Valker's «Chingizkhan» [8, p. 1940] rewrittenin large volume was published.The works written by above mentioned authors became the source for futher investigations.
«History of Central asia from Bronze age (2900 B.C.) till Chingizkhan's period(1229A.D)" [9, p. 1964] by Rakhula Makhapandita from India at first it had been written in Indian language and then it was translated into English. The book consisted of 27 chapters, the 26–27 th chapters of the book were devoted to the Khorezmian shakhs,for instance, Jalalladdin Manguberdy.The comparative diagramm of Khorezmian shakhs and Indian governors is also given in the book.The author highlighted in his book the administrative management in Khorezm,the conflicts between Chingizkhan and Khorezmian shakhs, Jalalladdin's escape, his success in Parvon, his murder as seperate chapters. Another source where we can cet information about Jalallladddin Manguberdy is the book «Behind Oksus.archeology, art and architecture in Central Asia» [10, p. 1979] by Edgar Knoblich. He gave extracts from works by Krausset and others in the book.The events mentioned in the book coincides with the ones in local literature. The book «Mongolion World Empire». 1206–1370" [11, p. 1977] must be mentioned as one of the best foreign publication. The book comprised all articles published in journals and newspapers in abroad about happened events. Among these articles in the collection «Juvayniy and Rashididdin's works as the sources on mongolion history» (journal «Historians of the Middle East» in 1962) is also interesting by analysing several foreign authors' works,and it was written:" According to D'Osson's work on Mongolian invasion, the above mentioned two administrators' impressions don't fit each other. That's why the author suggests both of them and it was not mentioned which one was correct.This inexactitudecontinued in Crausset's work, he mentioned about Juvayniy and Rashididdin, also Desmond Martin agrees with it. Here we can conclude that the two historians took the information from two different oppposite sources. In this case the source of Rashididdin is clear and he noted exactly about the valuable thing of Khan «Oltin daftar(Golden book)" which was saved in the hands of loyal, old aged amirs. Rashididdin couldn't directly use that holy mongolion chronicle, he was explained by Bulat Chingsang orally.Bulat Chingsan was an ambassador and representative by Chingizkhan in Iran Palace. The original mongolian version of «Golden book» [11, p. 1977] didn't come up to nowadays,but its chinese translation version was written before 1285.
A famous Turkish scholar Oydin Tonariy wrote his book «Jalalliddin Khorezmian Shakh and his period of reign» [12, p. 1999] basing on a lot of original sources, for instance, arabian, persian, georgian and armanian manuscripts.
The facts about most of events, historical processes, the states at that time, army and judiciary establishments, different functionaries, customs mentioned in this book may be news for us.
G.Bokkelman's book «History of Islamic Nations» [12, p. 3] is also rich in valueble information.Others' works and point of views in scientific investigations (for instance, Kh. Mukhamedov) are used as the source in sientific analyses of studying the history of Khorezm state system.
1. Бартолoд В. В. Туркестанвепохумонголoского нашествия. Сочинения в 9 томах. Т. 1. Москва, 1963.– С. 46.
2. Толстов С.П По следам древнехорезмийской цивилизации. М., -Л.: Наука, 1948.
3. Толстов С. П. Древний Хорезм. М. –Л., 1948.
4. Jabborov I. Buyuk Xorazmshohlar davlati (Qadimiy tarix sahifalari). T.: Sharq. 1999.
5. T. Saidqulov. O’rta Osiyo xalqlari tarixining tarixshunosligidan lavhalar. T.: O’qituvchi,1993.
6. Ibrohim Qofas o’g’li. Xorazmshohlar davlati tarixi 485–618/1092–1221. Anqara (Turkiya), 1992.
7. Hart Liddell.Captaing Unveiled (Chap I on Chengizkhan and Sabutai) Edinburg and London, 1927.
8. WaIker C. C. Chengiz khan.London, 1940.
9. Mahapandita Rahula Sankrityayana. Histoty of Central Asia. Bronze age (2900 B.C.) to Chengiz khan(1229 A.D.). New Dehli. 1964.
10. Knobloch Edgar. Beyond the Oxus.Archaelogy. Art’s Architecture of Central Asia. London, 1979.
11. Boyle John Andrew. The Mongol World Empire.1206–1370. London, 1977
12. Oydin Tonariy. Jaloliddin Xorazmshoh va uning davri. (Turk tilidan Boboxon Muhammad Sharif tarjimasi) T.: SHarq, 1999.