This article analyzes the levels of managerial decision-making, the factors that inﬂuence it, as well as the role of temporary and informational factors in making managerial decisions.
Keywords: personality, personnel, manager, individual personality characteristics, management, decision making, management decisions.
В настоящей статье анализируются уровни принятия управленческих решений, факторы, которые на него влияют, а также роль временных и информационных факторов в принятии управленческих решений.
Ключевые слова: личность, персонал, менеджер, индивидуальные личностные характеристики, менеджмент, принятие решений, управленческие решения.
Socio-psychological research of the decision-making process is aimed mainly at identifying how people actually make a choice. The data show that a particular choice made by an individual as a subject of decision-making is a consequence of the interaction of external and internal factors that determine decision-making. External factors include the conditions of the physical and social environment of the manager's activity: the nature of the tasks, the volume and quality of information, technical equipment, and the competence of personnel. These factors can create stereotyped (stereotyped) actions of the manager: for example, in the choice of a source of information, in the choice of performers, etc.
Internal factors include the properties and qualities of the leader's personality: individual characteristics of higher nervous activity, the system of skills, habits and knowledge, and experience. A number of personality traits are identified that affect the decision-making process. First of all, these are the creative abilities of the individual, her emotional stability, and the propensity to take risks. Or the imperfection of the personal qualities of the leader: poor memory, undeveloped imagination, lack of command of the logic of thinking, lack of experience, etc.
Thus, a managerial decision is a tool of the subject of management, through which a goal is set for subordinates, the methods and terms of its implementation are indicated. And the decision-making process, firstly, occupies a central, hierarchically important place in the management structure; secondly, it is widely represented in management activities and is included in all stages of its implementation, in all situations and at all levels. Third, the decision-making process has a high degree of complexity, maximum expansion, specific measures and forms of responsibility; and also exists in individual and group form.
The decision-making process in management activity is considered in psychology as a stage of a volitional act, the result of which is the formation of a goal and means of achieving it. This process is implemented on the basis of traditionally identified mental processes (cognitive, emotional, volitional, motivational), but at the same time it is not reduced to them. It performs in the structure of the psyche mainly a regulatory function (as well as the processes of goal-setting, forecasting, planning, etc.).
When making a decision, the manager consistently goes through psychological operations: mentally thinking through alternative solutions, writing the decision, communicating the decision to the executors.
The following psychological aspects of management decisions can be named:
– decision as a process from ignorance to knowledge;
– personal profile of the solution: a set of individual characteristics of the leader;
– interaction of people participating in the decision-making process (those who prepare the decision, whose interests it affects, and who implements it);
– perception of decisions by the executor: it should be psychologically sound and understandable;
– program of activities of the performer.
Any managerial decision not only organizes people, but also shapes the psychology of its executors. In the process of making a decision, the business and personal qualities of the leader are manifested. The procedure for making a managerial decision reflects the strengths and weaknesses of his personality, but not only must he possess all the qualities, he must master the process of implementing the decision.
Researchers identify psychological conditions that contribute to the development of the art of executing a decision. First of all, this is a condition for predicting the way of solving problems and their correlation with real conditions of implementation. Further, the compilation of an informational description of the «terms» necessary for making a decision; as well as the ability to operate with knowledge using professional experience and intuition. The next condition is the involvement of specialists in the development of the solution; and also the presence of strong-willed training to overcome the «struggle of motives» in favor of the decision.
Distinguish between a leader with an external and internal decision-making strategy. This division is based on the nature of the manager's self-assessment of their data. A leader with an internal strategy believes that the quality of a solution depends on his competence, intelligence, abilities and will. He is very active in seeking information, acts constructively in extreme situations, is resistant to pressure from other people's opinions.
They are passive, they believe that looking for additional information on a solution is just a waste of time; as well as under pressure from outside they abandon their position, trying to avoid risk and responsibility. In psychological preparation for making a decision, the leader must avoid extremes, which may be subject to both strategies.
The decision-making process can be accompanied by all sorts of errors: both objective and psychological. The first include — oversaturation of decisions made, duplication of decisions, inconsistency of new decisions with previous ones, unrealistic deadlines, etc. Psychological errors are associated primarily with the characteristics of the leader:
– reassessment of the success of the solution;
– habit of making decisions according to a template, inertia of thinking;
– appeal to own experience;
– underestimation of risks;
– desire to prove their case;
– making a decision based on subjective desire;
– pressure of failures.
The transfer of a managerial decision for execution involves the use of five main methods through which employees implement the decision or not. These are the methods:
1) «motivation» based on trust, respect, psychology of stimulation;
2) «beliefs» based on clarification, explanation of the task, goodwill;
3) «admonition» based on a request, persuasion, promise;
4) «coercion» based on official recommendations and instructions;
5) «coercion» based on an unconditional demand, order, command of power.
The choice of this or that method depends on how the trust and exactingness of the leader in relation to the subordinate are combined.
The more exactingness, the more categorical the appeal of the head. And vice versa, the more trust, the less categorical in form the appeal can be.
Thus, the decision-making process, being an important element in the management system, has a complex content from a psychological point of view. The specifics of making a managerial decision depends on the manager's use of a particular strategy. The decision-making process can be controlled if the organizational and psychological mechanism of «launching» and executing the decision is thought out in advance.
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