In the article, the author is trying to determine the impact of information technology in the structuring of the range
Keywords: XYZ-analysis, ABC-analysis, assortment.
Modern information technologies, the rapid development of which is becoming increasingly apparent at the present time, have significantly transformed the distribution system of commodity flows and allowed to increase the size of the sales market, contributing to an increase in sales volumes of manufactured products.
The following trends can be identified as the main trends: the creation of more customer-oriented sales systems for goods of enterprises and the formation of vertical marketing structures, which helps to expand the sales market and focus on the necessary customer groups.
Changes in the sales process of products manufactured by enterprises can be very different — from changes in the volume and channels of the company's advertising activity to the construction of fundamentally new distribution systems for goods flows.
It is also worth noting that in the modern economy, distribution is understood as a system of interconnected elements that form relationships regarding factors and results of production.
In relation to the economy and commodity distribution, “distribution systems” should be understood as the form of organization of one of the phases of social reproduction, the link between production and consumption.
Currently, distribution systems for goods are classified according to the following criteria:
– the object to which the system is oriented;
– product sales channels;
– a strategy for promoting goods on the market.
Until recently, the main objects of the goods distribution system were the basic distribution tasks (sales, analysis, formation of distribution channels, service and logistics), the breadth of the product range, the breadth of the covered market.
It is worth noting that today the territorial-oriented scheme remains the most common.
Rational management of the assortment of consumer goods is one of the criteria for the competitiveness of trade enterprises. For the good management of trading companies, it is necessary to analyze the assortment of goods of trading enterprises. The assortment and inventory management techniques and technologies are very diverse: the ABC- and XYZ-analysis methods, the adapted matrix analysis of the Boston Consulting Group, the Dibba-Simkin method .
Based on the Pareto principle, ABC analysis allows you to identify the part of the assortment that provides maximum profit, that is, 20 % of all products give 80 % of the turnover.
The advantages of ABC analysis are: simplicity and universality of use, automation of the calculation process, optimization of available resources.
With numerous advantages of this method, there are the following limitations in its application:
– seasonal sales fluctuations, fashion industry trends, product life cycle are not displayed;
– there may be incorrect results if there are few statistics;
– ABC analysis will give distorted results where there are many interchangeable positions, for example, products of the same type from different manufacturers.
XYZ analysis is a mathematical-static method that allows you to analyze and predict sales stability. Using XYZ analysis helps classify stocks depending on the nature of their consumption and the accuracy of forecasting changes in their needs, which is especially important for trading companies. Grouping of resources during the XYZ analysis is carried out in order of increasing coefficient of variation. This method allows you to divide the goods into groups depending on the uniformity of demand and the accuracy of forecasting and to calculate for each position the coefficient of variation or variation in consumption.
A feature of XYZ analysis is that it shows deviations from the average value, stable or unsustainable sales. At the same time, the reasons are: sales decline, their growth, uneven deliveries are not displayed. Reliability of the result will be possible if a sufficiently long period of time is analyzed. XYZ analysis is not possible if the assortment has a lot of new goods or supplies are intermittent.
These methods are similar to each other and allow you to analyze objects by the degree of deviation from the average calculated over several periods. ABC analysis allows you to determine the contribution of each product to the total profit of the company, and XYZ analysis — to study the stability of sales, deviations, etc.
The combination of these methods allows to increase the share of highly profitable goods without violating the basic principles of the assortment policy, and also makes the system of managing goods and inventory more efficient.
The matrix of the Boston Consulting Group is used in planning the range of products and allows you to make a full analysis and conclusions regarding the manufactured range of the enterprise .
Another universal and effective tool for managing the organization’s assortment is the Dibba-Simkin analysis. The results of this analysis of the classification of goods allow us to identify the priority positions of the assortment, determine the main directions of development of individual product groups, and evaluate ways to optimize the effectiveness of the structure of the assortment.
Despite significant, often unpredictable fluctuations in environmental factors, organizations need to have a well-developed inventory control system for the main stock items.
Inventory management is the most important logistics function, occupying one of the main places in the logistics system. By the number of stored items, supply systems are divided into homogeneous and multi-item. Single-product models are most widely used in logistics, however, multi-product models are in demand in supply and distribution logistics, their role is constantly growing. When constructing multi-nomenclature models, it must be taken into account that the demand for different nomenclatures can be independent, complete, and correlated.
The transition from a “chaotic” supply system and independent supplies to multi-nomenclature allows reducing total costs. However, it is worth noting that multi-product and multi-product models are not always implemented by logistics companies, since they are not sufficiently developed and require improvement.
The use of information technology has allowed potential consumers to receive and verify information about various products of interest to them. That is why it has become relevant to shift the orientation of the distribution schemes of goods from the tasks of the assortment and territories to the needs of customers, and the customer-oriented scheme is considered the most promising .
The advantages of this scheme are:
– customer focus, allowing to provide a level of service;
– the possibility of organizing an information base to take into account the requirements of prospective development of the clientele;
– the possibility of more efficient work with receivables, which often affects the reduction of accounts receivable of the enterprise .
It should be noted that when modeling the optimal structure of the product range, it is necessary to take into account the influence of the following factors:
– managerial, including the level of management that determines the validity of goals, strategies, etc.;
– technological factors that automate trade and technological processes using modern trading and logistics technologies;
– financial factors. Security with own working capital and the possibility of obtaining financial services (lending, etc.).
At the stage of analysis and planning of the assortment, it is necessary to take into account that technological and financial factors can limit the implementation of management decisions .
In a market economy, an objective need is not only management accounting, but also continuous improvement of the assortment and inventory management system, since each enterprise independently chooses development directions, social and investment policies.
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