Every day we use lots of words which were borrowed from English language. These words called Anglicisms. There are 3 reasons why Anglicisms are used in Russian Language. First reason is for inventions and concepts. Second reason is used when it seems easier to use Anglicisms. The last one is used to make things sound pretty in Russian. We do not think about that but Englishmen use words borrowed from Russian. The first group of these words is “pure borrowings”.The second group is for words, which have a Russian origin, but their meaning is differently invested than in the Russian language.The third group is for words which originate from the names of Russian figures.The fourth group is for acronyms.The fifth group is for pseudo-russisms.The sixth group is for English words with Russian suffixes -nik, -sky (ski).
Keywords: Anglicisms, Russianisms, Russian language, English language.
Any language is a dynamic system which always changing. Lots of words which are used in Russian language were borrowed from English and European languages. Also I should admit that in its turn many languages, including English, contain words called Russianisms (words or Slavic origin). Not all the words are truly Russian. Some of them co-exist in other Slavic languages and it is difficult to decide whether they made English from Russian or, say, from Bulgarian. Still others are themselves borrowed from indigenous peoples that Russians have come into contact with in Russian or Soviet territory.
There are 3 reasons why Anglicisms are used in Russian Language
Reason 1: Anglicisms for New (for Russians) Inventions, concepts, phenomena
1.1 way of life.
People have always tried to make everyday chores easier so lots of inventions were created in different parts of our world. USA inventions have English names. For example: миксер — mixer, шейкер — shaker, тостер – toaster, джемпер– jumper, сэкондхенд – second-hand, джинсы — jeans, шузы(обувь) – shoes, ланч (перекус)– lunch.
The development of computing technology was developing at the fastest pace in the United States, so lots of names in this sphere of knowledge are English.
For example, принтер – printer, браузер – browser, сканнер – scanner, ноутбук – notebook, интернет – Internet, компьютер – computer, юзер (пользователь) – user, файервол – firewall, компилировать – compile, интерпретировать – interpret, фиксить – fix, программировать – program.
1.3 is used for sport
Some kinds of sports were invented in the Western countries so they have appropriate names, for example дайвинг – diving, боулинг – bowling, байкер –biker, спринтер — sprinter, матч — match, футбол – football, сноуборд — snowboard, скейтборд — skateboard, таймаут – timeout, голкипер (вратарь)-goalkeeper, драйв (движущая сила) – drive.
1.4 group is used for jobs
The US market got its development before the rest of the country and therefore the name of some professions are of English origin. Examples: брокер (посредник) – broker, провайдер (поставщик услуг) – provider, риэлтор – realtor, продюсер – producer, аниматор – animator, дизайнер – designer, мерчендайзер –merchandiser, промоутер — promoter, копирайтер — copywriter, маркетолог (исследователь рынка) — marketer, логист (снабженец) — logist, дилер (продавец) — dealer.
1.5 group is used for food
Every county has its own history of development and its own national dishes. American dishes which were enjoyed by Russians have retained their original names, for example гамбургер — hamburger, фишбургер (внутри рыба) –fishburger, чизбургер (внутри сыр) — cheeseburger, чикенбургер (внутри цыплёнок) – chickenburger, тосты – toast, хот-дог – hot-dog, кетчуп – ketchup, чипсы – chips, крэкер – cracker, джем — jam.
1.6-When the brand replaces the class of things
Джип (внедорожник) – Jeep, ксерокс — Xerox, метро – Metropolitan Railway, эскимо — Eskimo pie, памперс – Pampers, акваланг – Aqualung, Aqua Lung, спам — SPAM (от англ. аббревиатуры SPiced hAM — «пряная ветчина»).
Reason 2: It seems easier to use Anglicisms
Some anglicisms are shorter than Russian equivalents. For example, we use «компьютер» instead of «вычислительная машина» or instead of «паб» you can say «пивная». Also, we use «ok» instead of «хорошо» and «гоу» instead of «пойдем».
Reason 3: Anglicism to make things sound pretty in Russian. Cool and trendy.
Using English words may seem a little more accurate, appealing or even prestige then using the same words in Russian, for example, имидж (image) instead of образ, шоу (show) instead of представление. Other examples: коучинг (обучение личностному росту) – coaching, аутентичный (истинный) – authentic, уикенд, выходные – weekend, хэндмэйд (сделанный вручную) – hand-made, детка (дитя) – baby. Instead of тренинг you can say «обучение» or instead of «пассворд» you may use «пароль».
What about Russianisms?
The first group is “pure borrowings”
1.1 Words-images of the Russian people
People in the west have some special stereotypes about Russians. There are words which they can use to characterize Russian people and Russian Federation in general: bayan – баян, matryoshka – матрешка, balalaika – балалайка, kalashnikov – автомат Калашникова, ushanka/ Ear-flap – ушанка, banya – баня.
1.2 group is food.
Russian food has its own features. Originally Russian dishes have kept their names in the west, too. Examples: blini – блины, kefir – кефир, medovukha – медовуха, okroshka – окрошка, pelmeni – пельмени, pirozhki – пирожки, rassolnik – рассольник, shchi – щи, solyanka – солянка, ukha – уха.
1.3 group is political and administrative words which are used in historical articles
Russian history is rich in political terms, for example, commissar (Russian комисса́р), kadet (Russian: Конституционная Демократическая партия, The Constitutional Democratic Party or Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally called Kadets), bolshevik – большевик, druzhina, druzhyna – дружина, dyak – дьяк.
1.4.group is Animals and plants
Russia is a large country where many animal species live. Some of them are in the Red Book. Names of such animals have Russian etymology, for example,beluga — белу́га, corsac — корсак, khramulya — храмуля, lenok – ленок, sable – соболь, mammoth — мамонт.
1.5 group is technical and special
Over its course of development, the Russians made many geographical and technical discoveries and gave them Russian names, for example, chernozem — чернозём, solonchak — солончак, baidarka — байдарка, elektrichka — электричка, marshrutka — маршрутка, mormyshka \mormishka\ marmooska –мормышка, polynia \polynya\polynia — полынья, Rodinia — Родиния.
1.6. group is for Russian weights and measures:
Pood\pud – пуд, verst – верста, sagen — сажень, arshin — аршин.
The second group is for words, which have aRussian origin, but their meaning is differently invested than in the Russian language
Babushkaphobia – dislike for grandchildren, fear of becoming a grandmother.
Babushka, a headscarf tied under the chin, typical of those traditionally worn by Russian women. For example: «She wore navy silk pajamas with white piping, a teal topcoat draped over her shoulders, oversize cat-eye sunglasses and a loosely tied babushka over her hair, giving her the mysterious, nearly plastic, impression of a 1950s Hollywood movie star». 
The third group is for words which originate from the names of Russian figures
Kevork – to attempt and/or accomplish suicide (derived from Dr. Kevorkian, the Suicide Doctor).
To Kerzhakov – miss a wide open goal, especially in situation, when it's almost impossible to miss. 
Nikolashka – is typically an afterdinner drink, was invented by Nikolai II.
Leninism — is the political theory for the organization of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism. 
The fourth group is for acronyms
KGB-КГБ, NKVD-НКВД, Sovnarkom-Совнарком, MVD-МВД.
The fifth group is for pseudo-russisms
Nadsat is a fictional register or argot used by the teenagers in Anthony Burgess's novel A Clockwork Orange. There are some examples from this novel:Bog – God, crast — to steal or rob, bolnoy — sick, bolshy — big, creech — to shout or scream brat, bratty — brother. [1, с.161]
The sixth group is for English words with Russian suffixes -nik, -sky (ski)
Beatnik – a young person in the 1950s and early 1960s belonging to a subculture associated with the beat generation. 
Peacenik is a member of a pacifist movement. «Likewise, Mr. Obama the “peacenik” is able to order legally questionable drone strikes and risky secret raids against America’s enemies without raising many eyebrows outside academia”. 
The study of word origins enjoyed considerable popularity in the past. But languages are changing, developing and studying of etymologies is relevant now. In connection with the scientific and technological progress Anglicisms are appearing in the Russian language. Russisms appear in the English language most often in historical contexts or as words describing Russian people.
- Burgess A. A Clockwork Orange. — London: Penguin Books, 1972. — 176с.
- Definition of beatnik in English // Oxford Living Dictionaries. URL: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/beatnik (дата обращения: 14.05.2019).
- Kerzhakov // Urban dictionary. URL: https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=kerzhakov (дата обращения: 16.05.2019).
- Leninism // Wikipedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leninism (дата обращения: 16.05.2019).
- Obama’s Use of American Military Might // the New York Times. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/02/opinion/obamas-use-of-american-military-might.html (дата обращения: 20.05.2019).
- The Czarinas Are Back // the New York Times. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/01/fashion/the-russians-claim-the-fashion-spotlight.html (дата обращения: 20.05.2019).