This article is intended for secondary school English teachers and secondary school students, and includes access to the plan, introduction, the main section, the summary and the list of literature used. The article gives English teachers and learners an overview of the benefits of the task-based learning method and the guidelines for applying them to the secondary schools. This article contributes to the improvement of teaching methods of English teachers and the increase of students` knowledge level.
Эта статья предназначена для учителей английского языка и учащихся средней школы и включает список запланированных материалов, основных глав, выводов и литературы. В этой статье представлена информация о преимуществах и недостатках методологии присваивания старшим преподавателям и ученикам английского языка и о том, как они применяются к старшим ученикам. Информация, представленная в статье, поможет учителям улучшит свои методы обучения, а учащиеся улучшат свои знания.
It is known that there are different types of methods and ways which all have variable effects and usefulness for learners to acquire a subject or a language. Because of being a type of education as important as other one, it isn’t possible to decrease the importance of a type from the other ones.
There are sorts of educational approaches which give students a chance to feel free and confident during lessons in order to make lessons meaningful. Especially, it is more significant for students to feel free and be sure enough to explain ideas and answer to questions while learning a foreign language by using the language as much as possible in class. Certainly, it depends on teachers to make students think positively to use more the language which is being learned while having lessons and doing different tasks. If teachers make language in the classroom meaningful and therefore memorable, students begin to be interested in doing process language which they are acquiring or recycling in more natural way.
Task based learning offers students an opportunity to do positive process by using language as much as possible they can. It is naturally to be a such kind of question what actually a task-based learning is. A task-based learning is a learning which focuses on asking students to do more beneficial tasks by using intended language. In task-based learning, all tasks are based on the real tasks which students do them in their daily life. Being like to real life tasks, in this learning such tasks can include like taking an interview, asking help from a responsible person of an organization, visiting travel agency and so on. Students are assessed by considering their task results, in other words according to the completion of the real life tasks rather than the accuracy of the acquiring language forms. it is certain that it makes the task-based learning popular since it helps to develop target language fluency and students confidence for themselves and knowledge.
According to N. Prabhu`s thoughts from Bangalore`s University, students can learn a foreign language easily when they learn it with some problems which they aren’t linguistic while they are learning linguistic questions. It is easier to master languages in real life by solving non-linguistic problems and doing tasks by using the language in reality.
A task-based learning is based on lots of variable tasks, but is it possible to use any task while having a task-based learning, how tasks are appropriate for such kind of learning process? For knowing the answers to these questions, firstly it is demanded to know what exactly a task is. As Rod Ellis (2003) mentioned, a task has four basic characters.
– A task should involve principal focus on practical meaning;
– A task should have some type of gap;
– All participants should choose the linguistic resources which is needed to complete a task;
– A task should have a clearly precise non-linguistic task result;
According to the information which is mentioned above about task, it is certain that it isn’t feasible to take any task for students in the task-based learning. A task should be appropriate to the demands above to be used in task-based learning.
Mister N. S. Prabhu (1987) found out the main three types of task: information-gap, reasoning-gap and finally, opinion-gap. In order to clarify more what the task is, it is important to know what the three types of task mean.
Information-gap task is a way of transferring information from a person to another or from a place to another one. It is generally called to decode or encode information from a language or into a language. There are lots of samples of information-gap task which can be used during the learning process. Working in pairs is a good example of the task which is a better way of exchanging information. In this type, each member have some information and they can exchange their ideas with each other while doing the task. It helps students to improve listening culture and respect to other person`s thoughts. As a result, they begin to explain their ideas confidently and learn how to think clearly.
Another example of task is filling a text which has gaps to be completed with suitable information. The activity involves the selection of information, and students may meet to criteria of completeness and correctness to make a transfer.
Reasoning-gap task includes selecting some information from a whole information which is given according to practical reasoning, results and conclusion. One example for reasoning gap task is making a teacher`s timetable matching with a basic school timetable. There is a similarity of reasoning gap task with the information one which both of them involve understanding and expressing the information, but it is the difference between them to express information in variable ways. In reasoning gap, students should convey the information with their own words concerning their conception which they take from the whole information.
Opinion gap task is a really good for students to explain all what they want to say. While doing such kind of tasks, students have a chance to express their ideas, feelings and also treatment freely to the situation which is given by teacher. The activity of completing a story which isn’t finished can be an appropriate sample for the task. In the activity, students can think free and convey their thoughts to complete the story, as a result, it helps them to improve both of thinking critically or positively and speaking without difficulties.
They are can be three different types of task, however, all of them serve to express and complete the task. They are so near to each other that one of them certainly demand another one. They are used to organize a whole task for teachers at secondary schools.
It is seemed that task-based learning is so interesting and beneficial to students to improve all their skills and increase the usage of target language. The main aim of using task-based activities at secondary schools is creating a need to the text learn and use language. The tasks will generate students` own understandable language and create a great chance for them for language acquisition. If teachers take away lots of difficult and complex form or structures and let students to understand easily, they can develop the students` ability to use the English language more. Nevertheless, it doesn’t mean that teachers don’t pay attention the language accuracy or students` mistakes, it means that teachers don’t limit students only by rules or structures, they give an opportunity for students to use English in the classroom as they use their native language in their daily life.
It can be concluded that task-based learning helps, improves and nurtures the learner`s foreign language by interacting with tasks and then to use the target language to complete the tasks. This process will also exhibit new language and give language learners a variety of approaches to improve their overall language skills.
- www.wikipedia.org. Task-based language learning (Retrieved 09:50. 15.02.2018)
- Bowen T. 2004. Reference material: What is TBL?
- Ellis R. 2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford. New York: Oxford applied Linguistics.
- Prabhu, N. S. 1987. Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford University Press.
- www.ukessays.com. Some advantages of TBL (Retrieved 10:01. 13.02.2018)