The state of any science at any moment in its history is determined by the tasks that society poses to it, its own level and previous history, and also the state of other sciences, both adjacent and not adjacent to it. The development of science takes place along two opposite and at the same time interrelated directions: along the path of internal differentiation and along the path of integration with other sciences. Both processes can occur simultaneously. The nature of modern science, including linguistics, defines two main features – polyparadigmality and integrativity . Polyparadigmality means that linguistic theories coexist not within the framework of a single paradigm, but are grouped within three main paradigms – functional, anthropocentric and cognitive .
The scientific paradigm is a set of fundamental achievements in the given field of science that set common standards, examples of scientific knowledge, problems and methods of their study and are recognized for a certain time by the scientific community as the basis for its future activity. When a new paradigm is created, the old schools gradually disappear . Often, when creating a new paradigm, new journals arise, demands for new courses in universities, and the new paradigm is strengthened if it resolves issues of science better than the old ones.
Integrity dictates the study of language in the unity of its statics and dynamics, the language system and language activity, the study of language in synchrony and diachrony on the basis of combining semasiological-onomasiological, synchronous-diachronic and cognitive approaches. Integrativity of linguistic knowledge is a consequence of the scientific principles of expansionism, anthropocentrism, explantation, functionalism, cognitivism.
E.Kubryakova singles out the following four principled attitudes for all schools and trends that are attributed to the modern linguistic paradigm: – expansionism, manifested in the emergence of linguistics in connection with other sciences, as well as in the integration of several related sciences and the enlargement of a separate large science. The concept of expansionism as a certain period in the formation of a scientific discipline – as opposed to reductionism – was first put forward at the XIV International Linguistic Congress in Berlin in 1987 with reference to the linguistics of the text. The principle of expansionism is manifested in the form of synthesis of various sciences, an active dialogue of linguistics with other sciences – philosophy, logic, semiotics, psychology, history, culturology, neurophysiology, etc. Expansionism in linguistics is the influence of sciences on linguistics, and on the other – the influence of linguistics on others science. This principle is defined as "the invasion of the linguistic branch of knowledge of other sciences." Expansionism is the opposition to the prevailing desire in the glossematics to isolate linguistics from other sciences, except semiotics and mathematics. Today, without any expansionism in the form of integrating linguistics and other branches of knowledge, no new linguistic theory is possible anthropocentrism, according to which scientific objects are studied in terms of their role for man, while anthropocentrism can take in different linguistic directions not identical forms. The principle of anthropocentrism
the position according to which the basic functions of language as a semiological system are formed in an elementary form in the direct act of utterance and communication of two people – partners in the dialogue. The term anthropocentrism means that functions represent at the starting point a distraction, an abstraction of some aspects or qualities of a person as active, cognizing and transforming the objective world of the subject. Its main properties are the importance of modern scientific research for humans and their interpretation from the standpoint of man. At present, two global problems of studying the human factor in the language are formulated. One of them was formulated as a circle of questions about the effect that the developed natural language has on the behavior and thinking of man, and what gives in this respect the existence of a certain picture of the world in man. The other was formulated as a circle of questions about how a person influences the language used by him, what is the measure of his possible influence on him, which areas are open to his lingual-creative activity and generally depend on the "human factor" (deixis, modality, expressive aspects of language, word formation, etc.). A person who has grown up in one or another linguistic environment perceives the latter as part of the very nature of things that always remain at the level of background phenomena. Such anthropocentrism of the language proceeds from the language itself and is thus generalized, abstract, whether it is the influence of a cultural code or language stereotypes. Apparently, the anthropocentrism of the language should be derived not only from the language or its products, but also from the availability of subjects – users of the language, their states – mental or physical; functionalism (or neofunctionalism), in which the central problem of science is the study of the functions of the object of research, its purpose. The principle of functionalism dictates, firstly, the consideration of the language in terms of the functions it performs, and secondly, its study as a functioning mechanism, ie, as speech activity and as a text-discourse. This principle gave birth to various theories united in the framework of functional linguistics, which marked the transition from structuralism to functionalism. In the process of linguistic research, all laws and mechanisms of the functioning of the language in its interaction with the person who knows the world should be "thoroughly studied and fully disclosed"
Explanation, interpreted as a tendency of modern linguistics to find a definite explanation of the internal organization of the language, its individual modules, etc. The principle of explantation is a principle of explanation that is realized through the action of the two previous principles of expansionism and anthropocentrism. This principle determined the tendency of the transition from "linguistics" to "why-linguistics". The principle of explantation ensures the adequacy of knowledge of both the formal and the content side of the language. Thus, linguistic expansionism is closely related to "Explanation as an effort to find every linguistic phenomenon a reasonable explanation of both anthropocentrism and functionalism as tendencies to seek similar explanations in the role of the human factor in the language and the fulfillment of certain functions by the language" . To the considered principles of modern linguistics, according to a number of scientists, we can add two more – textocentrism and semantic centrism.
Semantic centrism is based on the idea of the dominance of the content side of the language, which reveals the communicative nature of the latter and is directly related to the cognitive activity of man. Semantic-centric ideas – ideas about the dominance of the content side of language – were reflected in the works of E. Sapir, A. Vezhbitskaya, representatives of the Moscow semantic school. Yu.D. Apresyan, analyzing the peculiarities of the development of semantic theories at the end of the 20th century, points to the expansion of the object of semantics, noting that "they are ... any language values, ie. values of lexemes, grammeme, derivatem, syntactic constructions. During the dominance of the system-centric approach, semantics did not achieve significant success, and "only turning to anthropocentrism on a new, higher basis made it possible to advance in its study" . The problems of semantics are at the center of the research focus of modern linguistics because the communicative essence of the language is revealed through this aspect, and also because "the content side of the language is directly connected with the cognitive activity of man and represents the field of activity of many sciences studying the processes of formation and transmission of knowledge in language system ". Textocentrism is a necessary condition for achieving a new quality of education, the main content of which is the development of intellectual skills. The features of anthropocentric linguistics are most vividly manifested in the study of the text, since "all linguistic realities acquire true meaning only in the text. Without specifying how a language unit or category participates in the creation of a certain type of text, the concept of language will be incomplete ". Text cannot be studied outside of the person who is its creator and addressee. The text reflects the image of the world, captures in itself the dynamics of thought and ways of representing it with the help of linguistic means. In addition, scientists talk about the principle of cognitivism – the scientific principle dictating the study of the mental structures that linguistic units carry, and the mental space that stands behind the language, is reflected and formed in speech activity.
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