There are several conjunctions in the English and Uzbek languages and, as we know, they are used to link complex sentences one of which depend on the other in some ways. But they are not always understood as they are by the Uzbek learners of English. Because the English and Uzbek conjunctions have their own frequent meanings and rare meanings that are forgotten by the learners as well. That’s because some English conjunctions such as but, or, as have some confusing meanings for the native Uzbek speaking students.
For example the conjunction but is explained as a word that is «used to connect two statements or phrases when the second one adds something different or seems surprising after the first one» :
He came in, but he didn’t even said hello. — U kirib keldi-yu, lekin hattoki salomlashmadi ham.
«Is he interested in computers». «No, but he has to work on them at his work». — «U kompyuterlarga qiziqadimi?» «Yo’q, lekin ishida kompyuterlarda ishlashiga to’g’ri keladi.»
They know English well, but they don’t know any French. — Ular Ingliz tilini yaxshi bilishadi, lekin Fransuz tilini umuman bilishmaydi.
In the sentences given above but can sometimes be replaced with though which means shunday bo’lsada, garchi in Uzbek. In this case the order of some words in the sentence or some features of the sentence change their places and forms, but the meaning is kept as before:
«Is he interested in computers». «No, he has to work on them at his work though.» — «U kompyuterlarga qiziqadimi?» «Yo’q, shunday bo’lsada ishida u kompyuterlarda ishlashiga to’g’ri keladi.»
They know English well. They don’t know any French though. — Ular Ingliz tilini yaxshi bilishadi. Shunday bo’lsada ua Fransuz tilini umuman bilishmaydi.
But has also other meanings which are not easily understood by Uzbek speaking learners. One of them is the meaning of except. Except means …dan boshqa, …dan tashqari, …dan o’zga in Uzbek. As but means except in such sentences it can be replaced with except in most cases:
Everyone went to the party but Jim. — Everyone went to the party except Jim. — Jimdan o’zga barcha bazmga bordi.
Hardly any mammal but whales live in the sea. — Hardly any mammal except whales live in the sea. — Kitdan tashqari deyarli hech qaysi sut emizuvchi (hayvon) dengizda (suvda) yashamaydi.
They are not doing anything but waiting. — They are not doing anything except waiting. — Ular kutishdan boshqa hech narsa qilganlari yo’q.
When but is used at the beginning of a sentence it is given as axir in Uzbek and the meaning is usually disagreement:
I am sorry you don’t know my brother. – Afsus, akamni bilmaysiz.
But I do know him. – Axir, men uni taniyman.
But also has the meaning which also causes some problems in understanding the context for Uzbek learners. It may seem acceptable to translate but into Uzbek as ammo, lekin, biroq with this meaning, but in fact it is not correct to translate like that. Because the linguistic norms of the Uzbek language does not allow this notion in translation. In this meaning it is given in Uzbek as (emas) balki. This kind of using but occurs in negative statements:
She told the police not about the accident itself but more about how she felt during the accident. — U politsiyaga halokaning o’zi haqida emas, balki halokat paytida o’zini qanday his qilgani haqida ko’proq narsa gapirdi.
They didn’t do what they were told but the thing they liked themselves. — Ular aytilgan ishni emas, balki o’zlari yoqtirgan ishni qilishdi.
In turn, or is understood as possibilities or choices between two things or people. It is often used to mean yoki, yo, yoxud in Uzbek:
What shall we do this weekend: go swimming or have a rest at home? — Bu dam olish kunida nima qilamiz: cho’milgani boramizmi yoki uyda dam olamizmi?
Can you fry an egg or a potato? — Siz tuxum yoki kartoshka qovura olasizmi?
When this meaning of or is doubled in Uzbek in the same sentence it is good to use either instead of one of them:
Their car is either green or black. — Ularning mashinasi yo yashil yo qora.
Or has also another meaning which even makes some translators misunderstand the meaning of the sentences where it is used. In such cases translators confuse the Uzbek and the Russian languages’ norms and don’t usually take into account the peculiarities of the Uzbek language and translate or as yoki while it means otherwise which is completely different word in meaning. In this case it must be given as aks holda, bo’lmasa in Uzbek:
Do the task or I’ll punish you. — Siz mana shu vazifani bajaring aks holda men sizni jazolayman.
We had better hurry or we’ll be late. — Biz yaxshisi tezroq bo’laganimiz ma’qul, bo’lmasa kech qolamiz.
And one of the most problematic conjunctions of the English language for Uzbek learners is as. It can mean while (conjunction), becauseof, because, though, like (in some ways), when (conjunction). It is translated into Uzbek as …gan paytda, …gan vaqtda, tufayli, chunki, …ga o’xshab, …dek, sifatida, bo’lib:
As it was going to get dark we stared to get worried to catch the bus. — Qo’rong’u bo’lib borayotgani tufayli biz avtobusga ulgura olarmikinmiz deb xavotirlana boshladik.
We didn’t need to go to the bank as it was late. — Bizning bankka borismizning hojati yo’q edi chunki kech bo’lgan edi.
He solved the task as he was told. — U masalani unga aytganlaridek bajardi.
As can also be used doubled in order to compare two things or people. So it has nothing to do with the meanings of as given above. And in this case as … as … is translated as …chalik …(day) emas. According to the grammar rules of the English language though the conjunctions are used to compare two things or people between these conjunctions base form of an adjective or an adverb is placed. Sometimes there is a noun after the adjective or an adverb:
He tried as much as he could. — U qo’lidan kelganicha harakat qildi.
We have to do as many exercises as we can in order to success. — Muvaffaqiyatga erishishimiz uchun imkon boricha ko’proq mashq bajarishimiz kerak.
My grandfather can’t run as fast as he used to. — Mening bobom avvalgidek tez yugura olmaydi.
So there are several meanings of some English conjunctions that may be difficult or complicated to understand. But there is always a way out. Every learner of a foreign language should carefully study all the meaning of every word they come across and there will be no more difficulties on their ways to success.
- M. G‘apporov, R. Qosimova. Ingliz tili grammatikasi. Akademik litseylar va kasb-hunar kollejlari uchun o‘quv qo’llanma. — TOSHKENT, «TURON-IQBOL», 2010.
- Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 5. Electronic version.