This article is devoted to judgment to the analysis of social work in a cultural and historical context of development. The special attention is paid to a role specifics of sociocultural traditions of the social help which formed a basis of various models, systems of values of social work abroad and in Russia.
Keywords:social work, social help, historical and cultural traditions.
Relevance of studying of a subject is that a current state of a theoretical and practical basis of a phenomenon of social work inseparably from the main tendencies of its sociocultural and historical formation. The cultural and historical background of development of social work allows to open most widely the philosophical judgment of problems of the social help, outlook of the person defining contents and orientations of practice of social mutual aid which dominated during these or those historical eras. It is possible to note that social work is presented in a context the culturological and religious traditions as special type of culture of the life issued in the course of spiritual and moral development of the person and society.
Process of formation of social work testifies that social work was issued as the necessary sociocultural institute aimed not only at providing the help to the person in a difficult life situation, but also the attitude towards him to as the supreme value, creation favorable conditions of its activity, harmonization of the relations of the person and society. Specifics of national features of Russia have considerable impact on efficiency of implementation of various forms of social work. The cultural and historical context of social work includes not only centuries-old collective memory of political and legislative doctrines, but also methods, forms, the principles of work with communities and individuals in the sociocultural environment.
However in spite of the fact that such universal sociocultural categories are actual for the theory of social work: the person, society, the conflict, social time and space, a way of life etc., human nature, the attitudes towards his requirements, the relations of the person and Wednesday, interaction of the person and society, is differently interpreted and considered in various models of the theoretical and practical organization of social work. The person is an integral part of the cultural environment, sociocultural tradition that causes his development and problems, characteristic for it. By consideration as a cultural syndrome of individualism a similar reference point is orientation to the independent individual, and by consideration of a collectivism — orientation to a certain collective — a family, a tribe, ethnos, the state, religious group, etc. [3, S. 103]. However, as the western tradition of Christianity was always focused on an individual way of rescue of the person, and practice of social work in the western society was directed, first of all, on observance of personal freedom, and the public relations and ideals acted as norm. For example, the ideas of altruism which are the cornerstone of social work are characteristic both for western, and for domestic models, however, in the western model they were reflected in individualism, in recognition of an absolute personal freedom, recognition of its rights.In historical and cultural and philosophical tradition of the social help in Russia ideas of a collectivism are traced. Altruism represented an embodiment of ideas of conciliarity, a nationality, a collectivity. Thus, we can give examples of archaic communal forms of the help at slavs as «toloka», «pomochi», «pooling of funds», and also paternalistic model of social security which existed in the Soviet years. That is the collectivism represented the basic principle of the organization of activity and practice of the social help. Certainly, such sociocultural vectors of development of the domestic caused its specifics in comparison with the western models.
Investigating the social help in a context of culture of the East and the West, allocates that «the social work representing the professional help needing, was urged to neutralize negative consequences of a private property which threatened foundations of the western society. In the east, not knowing domination of a private property, social problems never reached such sharpness which would demand intervention of professionals. Therefore sources of social work were genetically connected with the western culture though subsequently I went beyond its framework. Philanthropic activity, religious and spiritual and secular values became the key determinants of theoretical and practical activities of social work which had impact on its formation. A basis east, unlike western, traditional forms of the social help made, activity of a community was connected with care of welfare of the members. With approach of Renaissance development of the charity proceeding not from religious, and from the secular bases began. The process of formation of the bourgeois relations which came to the end with industrial revolution was followed by an aggravation of social problems which decision was beyond the power already to volunteers of the charitable organizations, and demanded intervention of professionals.
In genesis of social work in Russia depending on a historical stage and the sociocultural environment the following models of the organization of social work, that is a stage of sociocultural and historical development through which the domestic system of the social help and protection was issued are allocated. National historical and cultural features of social work (help) in Russia were always understood in it’s to Christian virtues, charity, following which any person, even the prince, could increase the authority, showing the spirituality. For this reason emergence of social work as social institute, in Russia contacts an initiative of princes, and its development — with activity of orthodox church . E. Kholostova notes that «the beggar was for the philanthropist the best pilgrim, the prayful intercessor, the sincere benefactor. At such view the charitable help poor was business of the individuals got by ideas of Christian moral, but didn't join in a circle of the state duties [5, S. 16] treated it. Thus, specifics of orthodox cultural wealth provided emergence of philosophy of «contempt», which many centuries the defining approach in domestic model of the social help. K. Kuzmin, B. Sutyrin write that in countries of Western Europe in XVI-of the XVII centuries in the west of the state system of the social help was characterized by increase of a role of the state and decrease of the activity of Christian church. [1, S. 17–19].
In the XX century there were considerable changes in a problem of rendering the social help. XIX-of the XX centuries in the West was marked by transition to an institutionalization of social work. The big role in it was played also by the developed feminist movement. Two main models of the social help were created: «American» and «European» of which division various ratio of a role of the state and society in systems of social contempt is the cornerstone. During this period practical experience of charitable societies «Settlement», Salvation army’s is generalized and is systematized; there are first theoretical schools social works (M. Richmond, D. Adams), vocational training of frames of social work begins. The culture, national character and system of values of the American society had a great influence on formation and development of system of the social help of social work. The main lines of modern social work in the USA correspond to the main values of the American culture, reflect tendencies of a wide cultural and historical context» [5, S.15]. It is worth mentioning that, for example, Mary Richmond proceeding from the American ideology of individualism, considered poverty as an illness, as inability of the individual independently to organize the independent life.
The basis of the European model of social work is made by the theory of the state of general welfare. It should be noted that the conceptual field in the western model of the help was made out on the basis of confessional, political, social and economic, psychological approaches. The content of ideology of the state of general welfare consists in the concept of «the natural rights» of the person. The basic principles of this theory consist in the following: creation of approximately identical starting opportunities for implementation of vital plans, providing a worthy standard of living, aspiration to decrease in social and economic disproportionality, to increase in social equality and justice.
Having analysed historical and cultural features of social work, we come to a conclusion that, despite sociocultural distinctions of ideology of social work of the western models, rich historical theoretical and organizational experience of the countries of the West is certainly useful and deserves judgment and development. However without domestic cultural and historical traditions of the social help and support, creation of optimum and effective public system, modernization of the social sphere, improvement of activity of citizens is impossible. It is, as a rule, very difficult to borrow successful models completely as they, are built in the general system of cultural historical development.
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