Recognizing social, economic, political and cultural authenticity of Russia, it is necessary at the same time to note that for the solution of many urgent social problems it is useful to pay attention to those methods which solved the same problems in economically advanced countries. The United States of America where the liberal ideas became a basic basis of the organization of public and state institutes first of all treat such countries. In this country democratic values, having purchased the official status, were steady and were consistently considered in case of the decision socially — economic problems for many decades. In this respect the American experience of acquisition by public charity of the status of professional activity, the scientific discipline and an education system based on deep belief in need of education at the person of such personal qualities as activity, independence, responsibility, a capability to provide autonomy of the living position is of special interest.
By the beginning of the XXI century in the USA there was developed infrastructure of social security and education of social workers. Social work assumed function of the intermediary between the individual and the state designed to protect the right of each citizen to social justice, equal opportunities and satisfaction of compelling vital needs. According to Council of education of social workers in 2002 in the country there were 436 accredited programs of training of bachelors, 149 programs of masters and 78 programs of training of doctors of social work. Statistically, the Labor office of the USA, in 2002 as social workers was registered by 477 thousand specialists. From them, according to researchers, about 250–300 thousand received professional training at universities and colleges. Annually ranks of social workers are joined by about 10 thousand new specialists. In the near future also the further growth of number of educational programs is predicted [1, S. 28].
However, before taking a modern form, social work and system of professional education in the USA have done a difficult way of development which is interesting to us not only from the point of view of his main historical stages and regularities, but also that significance which is attached in this country to social work as the state and society. In the West the boundary of the 19–20th centuries was transition to the period of social work. Two main models of the help are formed: «American» and «European» of which division various ratio of a role of the state and society in system of social contempt is the cornerstone. During this period vocational training of frames of social work begins, a specific place is held by such types of the help as social and psychological rehabilitation and adaptation, a sociocultural situation. Thus process of an institutionalization of social work in the western societies proceeded.
Within these organizations two main approaches to carrying out charitable work were created. The first has been connected with the individual help to persons in need and was carried out by members of «Societies of organized charity», the second aimed at carrying out broad social reforms and passed within the movement «Settlement». These two approaches figuratively called «retail» and «wholesale», meaning under «retail» individual work with the client, and by «wholesale» — work in society. The theory of social Darwinism was an ideological basis of activities of «Societies of organized charity». According to it society shan't support poor people as it is contrary to economic laws. Being lazy and passive, the poor aggravate the provision. If society continues to give them help, it will begin to degrade and can die. Was considered also that the free help makes per capita an adverse effect, deprives of it independence, results in idleness and a dependency.
Especially harmful the uncontrolled, spontaneous help of certain philanthropists which allowed the same people to use it repeatedly was represented. At the same time charity was the integral Christian value, and completely it was impossible to refuse it. For this reason it was solved strictly, to regulate charity and by that to stop undesirable abuses. It was for this purpose offered to divide the city into areas and to create one general organization which would head activities of separate district charitable groups, both state, and private. To order process of rendering the public assistance, «Societies of organized charity» entered accounting of all poor people needing the help or using it. It was necessary to distribute donations rationally and to watch results of the carried-out work.
At the same time with the aspiration to order charity, the regulations that in work with poor people it isn't enough only distribution of appliances were pushed. So, H. Gurtin constantly focused attention on cardinal difference of «Societies of organized charity» from all other forms and systems of assistance. According to its ideas of reasonable charity, it is impossible to give help without preliminary studying and careful assessment of the situation. If H. Gurtin was limited to an appeal to studying of a social situation of poor people, then O. Hill went further and stated the important idea that it is necessary not just to study the poor's situation, and to get into an essence of his nature. She assumed that knowledge of nature of the one who is given help can give to the employee of society of charity an impact method on it. Knowing features of the identity of the poor, the worker will be able to affect his desire to change, will be able to inspire him for independent life and a moral conduct.
As noted M. Richmond, the idea O. Hill literally changed understanding about charity and nature of the public assistance.
Deep sense of social work are pledged in compassion, sympathy and love to the person, desire to awaken in it forces for revival. Sources of philanthropic activities lie in the area of morality and religion. Humanity — system of views which recognizes the value of the person as persons, his right to liberty, for luck, development and manifestation of the capabilities, considering human right criterion for evaluation of social institutes, and the principles of equality, justice, humanity — a desirable regulation of human relations. The humanity considered as humanity, philanthropy, respect for advantage of the person belongs to a bytiyny system of human final existence and is the fundamental moment, the basis of a possibility of the person, on the one hand, and his extremities as such — with another. M. Heidegger claimed that «humanity means now if we only decide to keep this word, only one: the being of the person is essential to the life truth». Humanity as thinking expresses readiness for overcoming not only the conditions constraining me in actions but also the conditions causing pain and suffering of others. Along with charity and compassion social and philosophical sources of social work are concepts of humanity and human rights.
Though between «Societies of organized charity» and movement «Settlement» there was a formal arrangement on a cooperation, exchange of information on methods of studying and overcoming social problems, methods of work with new employees and volunteers in these organizations cardinally differed that was explained by the different sense investing in the concepts «poverty» and «public assistance».
Members of «Societies of organized charity» generally aimed to solve social problems, working with individuals and families, believing that correction of nature of poor people is the main key to eradication of poverty. Activists of movement «Settlement» considered that failures and disastrous financial position of the person are covered not in his personal qualities, and in adverse conditions of the environment. If to change to the best general social terms, then vital problems of certain people will be inevitably solved. It should be noted that along with «Societies of organized charity» movement «Settlement» became an important prerequisite of emergence of social work as professions. The idea of creation of social settlements — settlements — arose in the Victorian England and was a part of broad fight for preserving spiritually — moral values in a century of an urbanization and industrialization.
Characterizing in general the level of a readiness of methods of social work of that time, P. Li, E. Divayn, D. Mengold, D. Breket and others recognized that the complete definition of technical abilities wasn't developed yet. Nevertheless, the foundation was already laid, and carried the following two types of methods to the leading methods of social work.
- A case — the work (or individual work with the client) including establishment of the diagnosis and performing «treatment» in case of the deviations arising at individuals and members of their families under the influence of adverse social conditions.
- The social researches and social reforms consisting in determination of impacts which are made by economic conditions on a social situation in society, and in search of possible ways of overcoming and elimination of negative social impacts on people.
The foundation was laid for forming of professional social work of individual type thanks to activities of «Societies of organized charity» which aimed to order and give the harmonious form to the movement, which was actively developing at the end of the XIX century.
The modern Russian reality rather sharply raised the questions connected with social policy, social work, and, therefore, and with a problem of training of specialists, capable to give the professional public assistance and support to those who need it. Despite rather large number of educational programs, it is obvious that we are in the beginning of that way which was done by the American colleagues in the field of the organization of social work and education of social workers within the last century. With respect thereto studying and the analysis of the American experience have special value. Knowledge of the foreign literature covering this problem, accounting of a set of the scientific approaches existing in the world can promote judgment of prospects of development of domestic system socially — pedagogical activities and training of social workers and social teachers in wide culturally — a historical context.
- Целых М. П. Социальная работа за рубежом: Соединенные Штаты Америки. — М., 2007.