Библиографическое описание:

Нагарокова Д. К., Нестеренко А. А. Studying of action of starting cultures on meat raw materials // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №2. — С. 178-182.

The analysis of literature sources [1,с.1018] certifies the application of starter cultures in the technology of production of hard-smoked sausages in order to accelerate the process of sausage aging. The activity of starter cultures is based on biotechnological principle of modification of fresh sausage meat in the process of which there is directed regulation of biotechnological, microbiological and physical-chemical processes [2,с.1723; 3,с.1150]. As a result of the given processes there is formation of structure, color and taste and aroma characteristics of hard-smoked sausages.

Guided by the experimental data about the impact of electromagnetic field of low frequency (EMF LF) on microflora [4,с.100], it was established that EMF LF can intensify the growth of microflora. Currently, there isn’t clear data about the study of impact of EMF LF on starter cultures and dynamics of physical and chemical, biological and microbiological processes typical for the technology of hard-smoked sausage production.

The goal of the given work is to study a required dose of added starter cultures processed by EMF LF on the property of model minced meat of the hard-smoked sausage type.

To determine the degree of effect of added starter cultures processed by EMF LF on the model system, we used model minced meat consisting of 60 % of cooled beef and 40 % of cooled pork. We used starter cultures Almi 2 by Almi as experimental microflora. As for the control group, starter cultures were activated in accordance with the recommendations of a producer.

As for the experimental sample, starter cultures were activated as follows: they were dissolved in warm water in the amount of 100cm 3 with the temperature of 25–30 °C; they were left aside for 30 minutes forcomplete dissolution (as it was recommended by the producer) and then, they were processed with EMF LF with the frequency of 45Hz during 60 minutes. After that the minced meat was added and mixed.

The selection of an optimal added dose of starter cultures.

According to the producer’s recommendations, starter cultures Almi 2 are applied in the amount of 20g per 100kg of minced meat. Preliminary data [5,с.1115, 6,с.1130], obtained during the selection of optimal frequencies for starter cultures activation, proved that processing of microflora with the frequency of 45Hz during 60 minutes intensifies the growth of microflora. In this respect, to determine the optimal dose of added starter cultures, we took the following correlations as per 100kg of mixed meat: 20g served as control; 17,5; 15; 12,5; 10g were added to experimental samples as per 100kg of minced meat. The dynamics of microflora growth was checked when storing model minced meat under the temperature of 20 оC during 12 hours. The results of studies are presented in Table 1.

Table 1

The dynamics of microflora growth after EMF LF processing on the model minced meat

Amount of starter cultures per g/100kg of minced meat

Duration, h

0

3

6

9

12

Number of cells, CFU/g

1

20 control

4,8×105

5,7×105

6,7×105

8,7×105

1,0×106

2

17,5

5,2×105

6,8×105

8,1×105

1,7×106

2,4×106

3

15

4,9×105

6,1×105

7,4×105

9,5×105

1,6×106

4

12,5

4,1×105

4,7×105

5,8×105

7,1×105

8,2×105

5

10

3,7×105

4,1×105

4,7×105

5,2×105

6,1×105

 

It was established that if 12,5 and 10g of processed starter cultures are added, there is no optimal development of microflora compared to the control. If 17,5 and 15g of processed starter cultures are added, there is active development of microflora compared to the control. It is known that excessive active growth of microflora can lead to fast reduction of рН and, consequently, to acidification of minced meat. Hence, were determined the adding of 15g of starter cultures processed by EMF LF to the minced meat, which is most effective from economic and technological point of view.

The study of physical and chemical indicators of raw material after adding starter cultures processed by EMF LF.

To determine the degrees of impact on functional and technological properties of model system, the activated starter cultures were added to model minced meat, mixed and stored during 12 hours under the temperature of 3±1 оC.

The results of change of a moisture-binding ability of model minced meat are presented in Figure 1.

Описание: D:\бумаги\аспирантура\статьи\НЕ ОПУБЛИКОВАННЫЕ\Молодой ученый\Молодой 2-82-2015\2\рис1.jpg

Figure 1. Moisture-binding ability of model minced meat

 

The presented data shows that control sample of model minced meat without adding starter cultures processed with EMF LF exceeds experimental sample of model minced meat in terms of moisture-binding ability. The indicator of moisture-binding ability of experimental sample accounts for 75,8 %, which is 2,0 % lower than the control indicator of 77,8 %.

Moisture-preserving ability determines the output ready product at the expense of binding moisture [7,с.78, 8,с.1708]. Theresults of the study of moisture-preserving ability of minced meat after adding starter cultures are shown in Figure 2.

Описание: D:\бумаги\аспирантура\статьи\НЕ ОПУБЛИКОВАННЫЕ\Молодой ученый\Молодой 2-82-2015\2\рис2.jpg

Figure 2. Moisture-binding ability of model minced meat

 

The presented results certify that adding starter cultures processed by EMF LF to model minced meat and storage during 12 hours under the temperature of 3±1 оC contributes to reduction of MPA of model minced meat by 1,8 % towards the control.

Stickiness of fresh meat is determined by accumulation of salt-soluble proteins on the surface of the meat [9, с.220, 10,с.223]. The results of the study of stickiness of model minced meat are presented in Figure 3.

Описание: D:\бумаги\аспирантура\статьи\НЕ ОПУБЛИКОВАННЫЕ\Молодой ученый\Молодой 2-82-2015\2\рис3.jpg

Figure 3. Stickiness of minced meat when adding starter cultures

 

The study of stickiness of model minced meat showed that when starter cultures processed by EMF LF are added, the stickiness increases by 15,3 %. We believe that, possibly, it is related to the activation of intra-cellular ferments due to the accumulation of lactic acid produced by starter cultures. Positive results of the research of impact of EMF LF on moisture-binding ability, moisture-preserving ability and stickiness of model minced meat obtained by us also certify the more effective operation of starter cultures subject to activation with the help of EMF LF.

Proteolytic activity of used starter cultures is important. It is determined by the level of dissolution of meat proteins. The given principle contributes to the increase of qualitative characteristics of fresh meat [11, с.76, 12,с.96]. Proteolytic activity of ferments presupposes the change of quantity of protein in the end product. Thus, the next stage of work was the study of fractional composition of protein of model minced meat.

Obtained data certifies the increase of watersoluble fraction in model minced meat with application of starter cultures activated by EMF LF confirming more effective operation of ferments. Accumulation of water-soluble fraction and loosely bound moisture in minced meat during the production of hard-smoked sausage contributes to effective drying of sausage product due to the transition fromfirmly bound moisture to loosely bound moisture.

Conclusions. It was established that processing of starter cultures by Almi 2 device with the frequency of 45Hz during 60 minutes stimulates their growth: when starter cultures processed by EMF LF are added to model minced meat, the MBA reduces from 81,78 % to 77,80 %; BPA by 4,8 % and the stickiness increases by 15,3 %.

 

References:

 

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