Expressive-visual language tools | Статья в журнале «Филология и лингвистика»

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Рубрика: Вопросы переводоведения

Опубликовано в Филология и лингвистика №3 (9) декабрь 2018 г.

Дата публикации: 04.12.2018

Статья просмотрена: 6 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Имамалиева Г. У., Якубова Н. И., Шойимова К. У. Expressive-visual language tools // Филология и лингвистика. — 2018. — №3. — С. 52-53. — URL https://moluch.ru/th/6/archive/107/3791/ (дата обращения: 21.08.2019).



Every speech is situational. Expressive speech is the answer to the situation conversation. It is to a certain extent involuntary. In the process of its man does not think about her own speech: she is a manifestation his inner state, his thoughts, feelings, features of his nervous system. Intonation own speech is born directly. WITH the transfer of someone else's written speech, while reading the work, liveliness, intonation correspondence appears in the situation of communication: the speech is “alien” should be a “assigned” reader, should become “its own”. Reception this characterized by psychologists like this: “We must report our own thoughts, considering: that for the interlocutor, these messages are new and interesting. Then there will be an interest in communicating with both partners, and a speech will acquire an emotional focus, expressed in intonation ". Is it possible to learn intonation that accurately reflects the content sayings? Psychologists answer this question in the negative: “This is the same the most that learn to cry, laugh, grieve, rejoice, etc. The intonation of speech in a certain life situation comes by itself, we use expressiveness in our speech in order to strengthen meaning of speech.

Logical stress is a special means of highlighting a word, used as an intonational counterposition or gain. The word with logical stress takes on the values not that, ―It is exactly this not another, etc. Emphasis in a word with a logical the stress is so strong that all the words behind him are the very end of the syntagma turn out to be unstressed. For example:

I, can read this text., I can read this text

Practically speaking each sentence can be so much options for logical stress, how many words in it. For example:

My‘ holiday ‗ starts to, morrow.

Logical stress is very important in oral speech. Calling his trump card expressiveness of oral speech, K. S. Stanislavsky said: “The stress is index finger, marking the most important word in a phrase or in tact! AT the selected word is hidden soul, inner essence, the main points of subtext ". Stanislavsky attached great importance to logical stress in artistic speech: “The stress is love or evil, respectful or contemptuous, open or cunning, ambiguous, sarcastic stress syllable or word. This is the presentation of it, exactly on the tray " [39,218]. Accent symbolizes the top rhythmic scheme in which the syllables that make up the speech beat, ranked by degree of isolation. This scheme can be implemented as through the actual prosodic processes (ranking the duration and intensity of vowels) and through related qualitative vowel changes. Simultaneously, the combination of rhythmic word schemes with prosodic phrase structure. These processes in different languages are not the same, which is reflected in the classifications of phonetic types stresses.

Accents of the English and Russian types were traditionally considered dynamic or expiratory. It was assumed that the increased respiratory and articulation effort on stressed vowels is reflected in their increased acoustic intensity. However experimental L. V. Zlatoustov's data showed that more important acoustic parameter is duration, with stressed vowels characterizing neutral duration, and on unaccented reduction occurs, the result of which is incomplete articulation (quantitative and high-quality reduction.

There is another way of organizing the ratio of shock and unstressed syllables: the vowel of the stressed syllable is lengthened, while the unstressed retain neutral duration (the quality of vowels remains almost unchanged). These are languages with quantitative stress. As examples of this type of stress are usually given in modern Greek. In him unstressed are not subject to reduction and differ from shock only no increase in duration.

Functional means of speech. Traditionally, there is another type of stress — tonal. In Europe It is represented in the South Slavic (Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian) and Scandinavian (Swedish and Norwegian) languages. This type of stress is associated with special interaction of verbal and phrasal prosody. In most languages of the world the beginning of the tonal movement, realizing a phrasal accent, combined with the beginning of the stressed syllable. However, the occurrence of two landmarks for placing a tonal accent.

For example, in Serbian-Croatian language has shifted the stress by one syllable to the left (the so-called «retraction»), and at the place of stress the words with the former the stress on the second syllable coincided with those that had the initial native stress; the old orientation of the tonal accent of the phrase while preserved. Therefore, in words where stress is not shifted, the downward tone statements fall on the stressed vowel, and where it has shifted, falling of tone falls on the stressed syllable, while falling of tone often preceded by its increase. As a result, on the initial stressed syllable are opposed to descending and ascending tones.

For example, the words glory, power in the Serbo-Croatian have a descending stress, and the words leg, needle — ascending.

The peculiarity of the French language is the lack of phonetic words as a rhythmic component of a sentence. As the minimum rhythmic unit stands syntagma, and its prosodic peak is the final syllable. If syntagma is expressed in one word, then syntagmatic emphasis falls on its final syllable. However the word in non-finite position has no rhythmic scheme.

Languages also reveal significant differences in the distribution of gradations forces in the unstressed part of the word. In some languages, all unstressed syllables in equally opposed to the stressed one, although the edge syllables may have extra gain or attenuation.

In other languages, the principle of «dipody» operates: stronger and weaker syllables go through one, with gradual weakening of force with distance from the top. Such is the situation in the Finnish and Estonian languages: the main stress in them is on the first syllable, secondary — on the third, and the third-degree — on the fifth.

The situation in the Russian language is unusual: the pre-stressed syllable is powerful here inferior to the shock, but more than others.

There is another possibility to vary the prosodic word pattern with “dynamic” stress: different phonetic parameters can strengthen different positions in this scheme. So, in Turkic languages the accent peak of the word is the final syllable on which is placed intonation accent. However, there is also a center of side amplification — the initial syllable, which accounts for the thunder bone bone.

In many languages outside Europe, pronounced accent top of the word is missing, and scientists find it difficult to determine the place stresses. A typical example is Georgian, relatively rhythmic organization of which there is no single point of view. Exists the opinion that the assumption of the obligatory rhythmic association syllables of the word is false. [27,144] In his favor says, in particular, history of the Russian language. In Old Russian a significant number of forms full-valued words were the so-called «inclinomics». These words did not have their own emphasis and joined in the form An enclicic to the preceding full blown words.

It is necessary to distinguish logical stress from phrasal one. Sometimes these kinds of the stress is the same: the same word carries phrasal, and logical stress. The main words in the sentence stand out, in a tone of voice and expiration force they are highlighted, subordinating other words to themselves. This is “the extension of the voice and the power of exhalation words to the fore in a meaningful way and called logical by stress”. In a simple sentence, as a rule, one logical stress, for example: From the end of August in the air begins to get cold.

If the logical stress is wrong, then the meaning of the whole phrase may be wrong too. Proper logical stress determined by the meaning of the whole work or its part (piece).

  1. Logical stress is usually placed on nouns and sometimes on verbs in cases where the verb is the main logical word and usually stands at the end of a phrase or when the name noun replaced by pronoun. For example: Gathered in the hall the viewers. The table was laid.
  2. Logical stress cannot be placed on adjectives and pronouns. For example: Today is a frosty day. Thank you. You will excuse me.
  3. When comparing, setting a logical stress to this rule is not submits to. For example: I like not blue, but green. To me like, not you.
  4. When two nouns are combined, the stress always falls on the name genitive noun and answering questions whose? who? what For example: This is a manager's decree. (When you rearrange words like this same: This is a manager's decree).
  5. The repetition of words, when each subsequent reinforces the meaning and meaning. previous, requires logical stress on every word with increasing gain. For example: But now that in me boils, cares, enrages.
  6. Enumerations in all cases (as well as the account) require at each the word self stress. For example: I got up, washed, dressed and drank tea. A tank appeared in the clearing, followed by a second, third, fourth...
  7. When combining copyright (or narrative) words with a straight speech, when in the text meet own words of any of actors, logical stress is preserved on the main word own speech. For example: — Yes, well, in my opinion, — through his teeth Timur. Mechanically apply these or other staging rules logical stress is impossible. You should always consider the content of the whole the work, his lead idea, the whole context, and the tasks that sets himself a reader, reading a work in this audience.

Languages detect and significant differences in the distribution of gradations of force in the unaccented part the words. In some languages, all unstressed syllables are equally contrasted with the percussive, although boundary syllables may have additional gain or attenuation. In other languages valid the principle of “dipody”: stronger and weaker syllables go through one, with gradual weakening of force with distance from the top. Such is the situation in the Finnish and Estonian languages: the main stress in them is on the first syllable, secondary — on the third, and the third-degree — on the fifth.

The situation in the Russian language is unusual: the pre-stressed syllable is powerful here. inferior to the shock, but more than others.

References:

  1. Barkhudarov L. S. — Essays on the morphology of modern English language- M., 1975–285s.
  2. Baskakov N. A. — Classification of Turkic languages in connection with historical periodization of their development and formation‖ —M., 1957–291с.
  3. Bloomfield L. — Language — M., 1968–323s.
  4. Blinov I.Ya. — Introduction to the study of modern Romance and Germanic languages‖- M., 1959–287s.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): WITH.

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