Theoretical approaches to the development strategy of the enterprise
Автор: Панютина Кристина Сергеевна
Рубрика: Экономика и организация предприятия, управление предприятием
Опубликовано в Вопросы экономики и управления №1 (12) январь 2018 г.
Дата публикации: 31.12.2017
Статья просмотрена: 6 раз
Панютина К. С. Theoretical approaches to the development strategy of the enterprise // Вопросы экономики и управления. 2018. №1. С. 27-28. URL https://moluch.ru/th/5/archive/78/3031/ (дата обращения: 23.02.2018).
Socio-economic reforms of recent decades have necessitated a revision of existing theoretical positions and approaches in the management of the enterprise. Modern, fast and ever-changing external environment functioning of the enterprise, strengthening of the elements of uncertainty and unpredictability, the acceleration of scientific-technical and socio-economic development has greatly complicated the management processes and determined the need for developing leaders strategic thinking to develop strategies for the development of the enterprise.
Strategic enterprise management is a complex process for which you need the performance of a complex of interrelated operations.
The practical significance of scientific research in this area is constantly increasing, this requires the formation of methodological approaches in the field of strategic management, adapted to the Russian conditions of business. To develop them you must have a theoretical basis. Therefore, it is advisable to examine theoretical views and scientific points of view on the understanding and contents of strategic management.
Today, there are a whole number of definitions of strategic management, which focuses on various aspects and peculiarities of this process. It can be noted the most frequent aspects:
‒ focusing on the parameters of the organizational environment;
‒ defining long-term goals of the organization and ways of achieving them;
‒ the definition of strategic management as activities for the implementation of the strategy.
So, for example, I. now, Ansoff defines strategic management as «the activities associated with the formulation of goals and objectives of the organization and maintaining a range of relationships between an organization and environment that allows them to achieve their goals, fit its internal capabilities and maintain sensitivity to external needs». A similar view is shared by a number of foreign scientists such as A. Rowe, D. Schendel', K. Hatten, considering strategic management as «the activity of establishing an organization relationship with its environment, consisting in the implementation of selected goals and trying to achieve the desired state of the relationship with Siim environment by means of resource allocation, allowing for excellent and fruitful to do organization».
L. O. Bogachkova Vodacek and also adhere to the above approach, but noted that strategic management is «a set of actions and techniques for the development and implementation of the development strategy, that is, the creative process of formulation and then implementation of the goals, plans, tips, software contained in the act. In the case of a configuration criteria and assumptions under which developed the company's strategy, strategic management ensures the functional reaction to these configurations, adjusts strategy, and the development of the company».
A. Thompson and A. Strickland believe that strategic management is «a plan of management of the company aimed at strengthening its positions, satisfaction of consumers and achievement of goals». And John. Pierce and R. Robertson represent this concept as «the set of decisions and actions to formulate and execute strategies designed to achieve the goals of the organization».
These approaches to the interpretation of the concept of strategic management allow different combinations and new accents that can extend perception of it. Thus, for example, V. D. Markov and S. A. Kuznetsov combined the 2nd and 3rd approaches and highlighted the importance of human resources in strategic management: «Strategic adjustment is a manual system that relies on human potential as the Foundation of the company, organizes production activities in accordance with the requirements of the customers, maintains strict regulation and continuous improvement of the enterprise, which allows to achieve a competitive advantage, in the end gives an opportunity to achieve their goals in the future».
Thus, strategic management can be defined as the process of realization and strategic decision-making, reflecting the priority objectives and dynamics, the prediction of the future, predicting the environment and the production methods of adjusting to its changes. The main idea of the concept of strategic management is to create conditions for long-term prosperity of the organization through continuous development and strengthening of competitive positions. For the successful functioning of the organization in modern conditions requires a favorable combination of its internal capabilities and external conditions.
Strategy embraces all the activities of the company, all its employees, targeting maximum efficiency. The process of strategy formation comes from the awareness of the need to do anything in order to achieve competitive advantages in comparison with competitors. Strategic business idea must match your existing businesses potential, needs of the external environment, after which it needs to be converted into a plan of action. Next step is to ensure the developed strategy with all necessary resources, including technology and human resources.
The whole process of planning is divided into two main stages: development of business strategy (strategic planning) and the definition of tactics implement the strategy (operational planning).
Planning of activity of the enterprise has two aspects: the General economic and specific management when planning acts as one of the functions of management. As a function of management planning can be defined as the ability to foresee the objectives of the enterprise, the results of its operations and identify the resources needed to achieve certain tasks.
In strategic management theory there are several approaches to elaborating the company's development strategy: corporate, iterative, intuitive and chaotic planning. Currently, the stabilization of the economic and socio-political situations in our country, many large Russian companies are moving from intuitive planning to corporate planning.
The planning process is a closed cycle with direct (from strategy definition to operational plans before implementation, and control) and backward (from the result of the execution of the refinement plan) connection.
The strategic planning process is a sequence of three stages: strategic analysis, goal setting, formulating a basic strategy and choice of strategic alternatives.
The result of the compilation of the strategic plan of the enterprise is the document called «Strategic plan of the enterprise». Specific actions to implement the plan carried out both by senior management of the company and heads of structural divisions.
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