About some problems of specialized terminology in teaching foreign language
Автор: Бакирова Хилола Ботиралиевна
Рубрика: 8. Филологическое образование
Дата публикации: 18.03.2017
Статья просмотрена: 36 раз
Бакирова Х. Б. About some problems of specialized terminology in teaching foreign language [Текст] // Филология и лингвистика в современном мире: материалы I Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, июнь 2017 г.). — М.: Буки-Веди, 2017. С. 79-81.
This article considers about the specialized terminology as a special genre of human intellectual activity, fixing the results of cognitive activity and performing an acquaintance with the basic concepts of a particular branch of knowledge. As specialized terminology, in recent years, have been in the focus of many researchers, here we also aimed to analyze and generalize these concepts.
Key words: specialized terminology, terms, international standards, specialized dictionary, terminography, special vocabulary
Specialized terminology is a thematic and conceptual area, connecting the people who communicate professionally. «Every specialized terminology substantively and functionally characterized by its attachment to the narrow sphere of specialists’ communication in the field of science or practice. The true and deep understanding of the meaning of each term is only available to them, only the experts use the terms very accurately» [3, p-53].
Specialized terminology, in recent years, is in the focus of many researchers.
About how this or that branch of knowledge developed as limited its concepts from the concepts of other branches of knowledge, evidenced by the presence of specialized vocabulary. Specialized Dictionary — a special genre of lexicographical descriptions, addressed to both specialist and nonprofessionals.
Special lexical units — terms — have a semantic structure correlated with the scientific concept. Comparative analysis of the typological characteristics of terms constituting transferable bilingual specialized dictionary allows revealing the features of the conceptual structuring of the field in each of the analyzed languages.
Specialized Dictionary is a special genre of human intellectual activity, fixing the results of cognitive activity and exercising the familiarity with the basic concepts of a particular branch of knowledge (prompting to study, to knowledge).
Terminography — a partition of lexicography, with its own objectives and specific tasks, owning its own subject description and methods.
According to S. V. Grinyov "now there is every reason to consider Terminography as an independent discipline, which has its object of study — dictionaries of special vocabulary, its subject — the establishment of principles for the formation and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, their own methods of system analysis and description of the special vocabulary in dictionaries of different types, as well as integrated parametric descriptions and evaluations of dictionaries» [5, p-19].
As fairly observes I. S. Kudashev, «Principles of creation of normative terminological products are described in detail in many textbooks, manuals and even international standards, but they are not always applicable to the dictionary, focused on translation, as the latter are quite different from standard dictionaries in volume, purpose and destination» [6, p-1].
Compiling dictionary it is a work that requires joint action of linguist — and specialist — terminology dictionary as, on the one hand, this is a list of lexical units, demanding the linguistic description, but on the other hand — this conceptual field related to a specific part of scientific knowledge.
Specialized terminology has a clearly marked pragmatic character as addressed to a certain part of society and, therefore, we consider that «in compiling the dictionaries of special vocabulary it is important to take into account that the level of knowledge of the users in the selected domain, their general language skills, language skills for specific purposes and lexicographical training» [6, p-1]. In the history of lexicography as the linguistic branch of knowledge, designed to study the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries, terminography occupies a certain place.
The researchers, in particular I. S. Kudashev noted that lexicography as an area of linguistics, despite centuries of existence of dictionaries got its development only in the 20th century: «lexicography as a science is relatively young and its conceptual system and the terminology is unsettled (Burkhanov 1998: 7; Tabanakova 1999: 9; Hartmann 2001: 64) " [6, p-15]. The most intensive development of lexicography has reached the middle of the XX century, and in the second half of the XX century, in the depths of lexicography started to form a special branch of lexicographical description — Terminography.
Among the most important studies, developing the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries and special terminography include scientific papers S. V. Grinyova, Y. N. Marchuk, I. S. Kudasheva.
In the works of S. V. Grinyova, in particular, in the «Introduction to Terminography», the central place is occupied by the study of theoretical issues related to the practice of compiling dictionaries. The author points to the close relationship terminography with terminology: «Originating as a branch of lexicography, terminography always gravitated to the terminology, as issues such as the establishment of synonymy, homonymy and polysemy of terms, definition and selection of them foreign-language equivalents traditionally solved in the framework of terminology».
And further: «So many terminographs believe that the terminology is a theoretical base or even considering terminography as a section of terminology. Recently however, it determines the range of problems itself terminography that allows considering it as an independent field of knowledge, located at the junction of terminology and lexicography " [5, p-8]. Consequently, S. V. Grinyov, pointing to the obvious connection between science on the terms and science of special dictionaries, yet emphasizes terminography independence as a branch of linguistic knowledge.
The author examines the dictionary as a complicated compositional device whose component parts are macro-composition and micro-composition dictionary, each having its own specific set of core and optional features (in the terminology used by the author of the work — the parameters). By macro-composition assigned parameters associated with questions of general vocabulary structure to micro-composition — parameters associated with the problems of the format of entries, and the nature of its filling [5, p-18].
In the J. N. Marchuk’s «Fundamentals of terminography» there are analyzed general questions of terminography, but the focus of the author are the issues related to machine translation, and the last place in the general theory of terminography. Since the work in question has the character of a manual, it sets out in the review as the problematic issues of lexicology, lexicography, the modern language situation and many other phenomena that give related topics as the problem with the translation of the term, and with the issues of creation of terminological dictionaries.
An interesting study of general and specific questions of terminography conducted recently and published relatively recently, is contained in the I. S. Kudashev.
So, the terminography has only a few dozen years, during which, produced some results as:
‒ an attempt to determine the place terminography among other branches of knowledge, and its relations with lexicography and terminology;
‒ defined object of study and objectives of its analysis;
‒ identified a range of key characteristics of the special vocabulary (or parameters) which accumulated a certain amount of information relating directly to the history of terminography and its theory and practical usage
Agreeing with the opinion of S. V. Grinyov, “the subject of lexicographical theory is to develop principles and methods for creating dictionaries, and central to the lexicographical theory is the doctrine of the types of dictionaries, glossary, and a part of the structure of the entry” [5, p-6], the subject of terminography theory «should be considered to develop the methodology and specific methods of preparation of special dictionaries, and most important tasks — the development of the principles of classification and typology of terminological dictionaries, the definition of scientific principles selection of a special vocabulary for specific types of terminological dictionaries, and the establishment of uniform principles the most effective description (interpretation, translation, attribution, etc.) and presentation of terminological vocabulary in special dictionaries».
The work of I. S. Kudashev «Designing the translation dictionaries of special vocabulary» is interesting because in it there is given almost complete description of the dictionary as a product, given a list of dictionary users, set out its own method of design of specialized dictionary.
When designing a dictionary based on the established definition of I. S. Kudashev says necessary to consider the following issues:
‒ addressee of the dictionary;
‒ purpose of a dictionary;
‒ relationship with other works;
‒ carrying information;
‒ composition of the left side of the dictionary;
‒ composition of the right side of the dictionary;
‒ composition of additional information;
‒ composition and the relative position of parts of the vocabulary;
‒ means of compression of the dictionary;
‒ organization of vocabulary and providing access to information [6, p- 48].
It is not difficult to notice that the parameters of the terminological dictionary, marked J. S. Kudashev, called as the basic characteristics and in the work of S. V. Grinyov. Question about the problems of terminography is particularly important for the professional exchange of information, as the specialized dictionaries — this is necessary for professional communication literature, which are supported and specialists — terminographs, and translators representing the language of the person.
So, a brief overview of modern scientific literature suggests that in the history of linguistics XX century can be marked by diverse and swift development of linguistic knowledge. The end of the XX century was marked by a change in the language analysis researcher positions: dominant becomes anthropocentric paradigm. Linguistics beginning of the XXI century shifts the focus of its attention to the study of language from the language to human language, taking the position of the language as a bridge between the mental and the social and cultural life.
- Akhmanova O.S, Minaeva L. V. On the subject of meta-language and educational lexicography\ Dictionaries and lingvo-countrystudy. M. 1982.
- Akhmanova O.S, Ter — Mcrtchian S. A. The scientific definition of a linguistic and semiotic problem\ The problem of definitions of terms in the dictionaries of various types. D., 1976.
- Danilenko V. P. Russian terminology: the experience of linguistic description M.: Nauka, 1977. — 246 p.
- Gak V. G. Some regularities of lexicography (learning and lexicography in general historical aspect) \ Actual problems of educational lexicography. M. 1977.
- Grinyov Grinevich S. V., Terminology / Hadout. M.: Acad. 2008, 304c.
- Kudashev I. S. The original approach to terminography as the science of creating terminological dictionaries. Design of translation dictionaries of special vocabulary. Helsinki, 2007. 443 p.
- Vinogradov V. V. Actual problems of educational lexicography -M., 1977.
- Vinogradov V. V. The word in the dictionary and grammar. Moscow, 1984
- Volkova I. N. The standardization of scientific and technical terminology. Moscow, Publishing House of Standards, 1984.
- Volodin, N. V. On the question of the structure and content of bilingual scientific and technical dictionaries\ Conference on the theory and practice of translation of scientific -technical. L. 1968.