Formation of pedagogical skill of the future primary school teachers
Рубрика: 9. Педагогика высшей профессиональной школы
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Ратушинская, А. С. Formation of pedagogical skill of the future primary school teachers / А. С. Ратушинская. — Текст : непосредственный // Педагогическое мастерство : материалы I Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Москва, апрель 2012 г.). — Москва : Буки-Веди, 2012. — С. 288-290. — URL: https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/22/2125/ (дата обращения: 16.05.2022).
Vocational and educational activities of primary school teachers have the specifics, which is to provide them with training on all subjects human and natural-mathematical cycles, a portion to the implementation of a wide, extra-curricular educational work. Professiograme primary school teacher reflects a significant amount of integrative components of its educational activities, which combines the functions of subject teachers and the classroom teacher and, therefore, poses a constant need to develop his teaching skills. It is on the teaching skill of formation at the first teacher who called three or four years to implement cognitive and educational work with younger schoolchildren, their parents, colleagues, community, independent of physical and spiritual health of the child, the formation of personality, able to cooperation, harmoniously positive relations to society , self-expression and creativity. And to begin the development of teaching skill of primary school teachers should have a higher education institution. Characteristics of pedagogical skill in domestic and foreign pedagogy related to B. Slastenin, L. Spirin, G. Keith, A. Dontsov, A. Pehota, I. Podlasy, N. Kuzmina, A. Savchenko, A. Pometun, S. Sysoev, in. Surikov, AL Stepanov, V. Bespalko, I. Bogdanov, V. Zagvyazinsky, V. Kan-Kalik et al.
The concept of "pedagogical skill" is defined as the possession of a flexible system of conscious, purposeful, coherent, intellectual and practical actions that enable teachers to successfully implement training and education function in a changing environment [2, p.112]. Thus, the essence of teaching skill is the mastery of theoretical and practical actions in their unity, aimed at the successful completion of professional activity.
Pedagogical skill is manifested in the ability to perceive and originally solve professional problems, using the most appropriate means to interact successfully with the environment, especially in unusual situations, to create original products that are personal and social significance, the ability to create new, in a nontraditional approach to the organization of teaching the educational process, the ability to creatively solve any professional problems, interact with pupils, colleagues, children parents, the ability to develop the creativity of children who are to be reflected in behavior, would become the norm for them [4, p .25].
The components of the pedagogical skill of different types: internal - motivational, cognitive, reflective, external - organizational, activity, productive. The personality of primary school teachers is extremely versatile, and in each case are certain valuable points. That primary school teacher combines two specialties. It should be an expert not only on what the subject, who teaches, but also a teacher and educator, that is to combine the skill of the teacher and educator. Teaching, he not only sends pupils to knowledge, but also instills humane ideals, to awaken the need for socially useful activity, has an active position [1, p.3].
Acquisition of teaching skill lengthy process. He began teaching in the walls of the high school and continues throughout life. Students need to constantly prove that the pedagogical skills - the ability to optimize a professional all kinds of educational activities, send them to the full development and perfection of the individual, an organization that provides high educational process. It is characterized by a high level of generalized special skills, and, of course, the essence of it - in the teacher's personality, his position, the ability to manage activities at the highest level. Of great importance in this context is the possession of a teacher teaching technique.
Possession of this technique indicated the ability to turn on the device pedagogical influence their emotions, the voice (tone, strength), gestures, facial expressions. Any approach to the determination of the content of educational technique is constantly maintained a number of elements, namely the culture of communication, self-regulation and technical activities (self-control, endurance), management of domestic well-being, mastery of the audience's attention, expressive display of feelings and attitudes (facial expressions, pantomime, the appearance of the teacher) , language skills (voice, breathing, diction, literacy, intonation flexibility, emotional expressiveness, etc.) [5, p.421]. Above this we have to work even before the school is actively using the self-development. The teacher should have an arsenal of tools with which he conveys his experience, his ideas. These funds are always unique individual. In addition to the words, voice tone in the arsenal of the teacher there are gestures, movement and rhythm. But before your eyes! '' The empty eyes - a mirror of an empty soul " (Stanislavsky).
Thus, in the formation of professional skill of primary school teachers should be a close link between theory, methods and teaching techniques. Formation of pedagogical skill will be productive in an environment where this process will be systematic, continuous, drawn up through the levels on the development of all components of a particular concept as a dynamic personality traits. The role of self-education in this process is enormous.
The need for self- education, on the one hand, very specific teaching activities, their social role, on the other hand, the realities and trends in continuing education related to the constantly changing conditions of pedagogical work, the needs of society, the evolution of the science and practice, the increasing demands on man and his ability to quickly and adequately respond to changing social processes and situations, willingness to restructure its operations, ably tackle new, more complex problems [3, p.21]. At the present time in the labor market situation exists indicating that only a competent, self-organized and proactive professionals capable of self-improvement both professionally and in personal terms, are competitive and the most popular. Graduate of an educational institution is not able to update the operational part of their cultural experience can not be prepared for life. To gain competence can only search for self knowledge in the process of self-education activities. This problem is particularly acute in the task of self-organization of students in the context of university teaching and presentation of self-education as an integral part of the natural and integral part of his life. The ability to study, formulate goals of their activities, learning to recognize the problem and determine a way to solve it, skillfully monitor and assess the correctness of the decision - the main components of a successful self-education students.
It is also advisable to consider the characteristics of self-education of future primary school teachers: a strong motivation for the student; high level of activity and consciousness of future teachers; voluntariness in acquiring new knowledge, in learning a new activity; commitment, consistency of this activity, the systematic character; self-knowledge of students (self-determination of educational objectives, the choice of tactics, strategies and teaching methods, self-reflection, self-esteem); controllability of the personality and the exclusion of external debt; selective in comparison with the educational knowledge, orientation to meet the cognitive needs and interests, the formation and improvement of personal qualities.
Selected characteristics of self-education of future primary school teachers provide an opportunity to talk about self-education students, as a broad and dynamic system based on individual needs in constant expansion, upgrading and deepening the knowledge of man. The characteristic features of self-education activities allow us to examine in detail the self-education skills for future primary school teachers, which include:
- purposefulness (orientation, identification of goals);
- rational planning and organization of self-cognitive activities (design your own actions, regulation of time, the choice of forms, methods, sources of self-education, the creation of optimal conditions for self-education and organization of the workplace);
- information-retrieval skills (search, selection of relevant information, using it to generate new knowledge);
- skills training and information;
- creative skills based on the rational use of information - communication technologies (converting information on the way to work);
-the ability to self-awareness and self-esteem;
-the ability to self-control and self-regulation;
-reflexive skills (self-report on the performance, development of new objectives for the next cycle of self-education, identifying areas to improve their own self-education activities). Even in high school, students should master the basic skills of self-education.
Because the self-educational activity of students perform multiple functions (acquisition method of obtaining knowledge, the use of special funds for self - Internet, etc.), the competence of self-education - is the highest capacity to mobilize the integrated system of organized knowledge, skills and personal qualities necessary for the implementation of the new a specific task.
Readiness for self-education - the ability to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills in solving new problems, assess the need for some information for their activities, carry out information search and retrieve information from various sources in any medium, as well as the flexibility to change their professional skills, develop their own knowledge and skills necessary to solve the problem. Self-education student's competence is determined by the degree of development of self-competence. In this case, the competence of the student's self-education should be understood as a set of interrelated abilities (semantic attitudes, knowledge, skills, techniques and experience of activities) required for the meaningful exercise of self-improvement and continuing education activities. Competence is an integrated self-characterization of personality traits that manifest themselves in need of a common willingness and ability to self-educational activities aimed at achieving certain personal and socially significant educational goals.
Educational system of formation of self-education competencies for future primary school teachers have a set of interrelated, forming the integrity of the elements: purpose, content, instructional process, organizational forms and tools necessary for the interaction of teacher and student, aimed at the formation of their personality traits that provide an informed implementation and continuous improvement of self-education activities, taking into account certain principles and diagnostic tools to the criteria of competence to determine the level of self-education in its development. The didactic process of motivating the student to self-education activities; realizes the formation of subject positions of students in the process of self-competence, can by selecting the appropriate teaching methods to manage the process of formation of self-competence of the student.
The requirements, which contribute to the formation of pedagogical skill of future teachers, we are: the diagnosis of individual students, identifying the levels of development of his personality as a whole and individual areas, identification of existing creative components of personality, definition of specific objectives of the formation and development of personality, self-development of individuality in the unity of its formation in the educational process, the student and teacher of high school are the subjects of their activities; student awareness of the need for self-development of his personality.
We have identified educational environment conducive to the formation of pedagogical skill for future primary school teachers: the creation of pedagogically creative environment in higher education (educationally creative environment - artificially create special atmosphere of the process of training future teachers on the basis of equality, freedom to initiate and support an active search process, development of personal autonomy, the formation of teacher creativity, the creation of the installation of students on a professional and creative self-development of personality in the process of training activities, providing the theoretical training of students in the implementation process of the formation of pedagogical skill, increase the proportion of reflexive, creative forms of work in order to improve students' initiative and activity, the development of a students' skills and abilities of humanitarian and natural areas, creating "an individual trajectory of" development of pedagogical skill in pedagogical high school.
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