Pedagogical conditions for the formation of the true authority of teacher-educator
Рубрика: 1. Общая педагогика
Дата публикации: 07.07.2017
Статья просмотрена: 5 раз
Каюмова Ш. Т., Норова Л. Х. Pedagogical conditions for the formation of the true authority of teacher-educator [Текст] // Аспекты и тенденции педагогической науки: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Санкт-Петербург, июль 2017 г.). — СПб.: Свое издательство, 2017. С. 6-8.
Formation of the teacher's authority is characterized by time duration. This is a long process, which has its own logic. Let us consider this process.
The most common are professions, where the subject of labor is technology. It includes all the professions related to the maintenance of equipment, its repair, management: a mechanic, a repairman, a technician, a driver, a technician, a turner, a physics engineer, and so on.
The next type of profession is «man is nature». Of course, any object on the Earth, and even the person himself, belongs to nature. When we associate human activities with nature, we mean a living nature and, above all, vegetable animal organisms, microorganisms. Here are a few professions: a microbiologist, a fish farmer, a veterinary feldsher, a florist, a forester, and others.
Often the object of human labor is various signs: oral or written speech, numbers, chemical and physical symbols, notes, diagrams, graphics, drawings, etc. Such professions are conditionally referred to as «man is a sign system». This is, for example, a proofreader, an economist, draftsman, topographer, and others.
Very many like the profession, work in which is associated with visual, musical, literary, artistic and acting activities. This profession is like «man — an artistic image»: a designer — a fashion designer, a stained-glass window, a photographer — an artist, musician, journalist, etc.
And the last type of profession is «man-man». The work of people of these professions is aimed at the upbringing and education, informing, household, commercial, medical care of people. It is connected with the management of leadership by people or collectives. In these types of activities in the process of labor, people interact with each other. This type of profession includes, for example, a guide, a seller, a teacher, etc.
In order to master a certain profession and then successfully work, a person must have specific qualities that meet the requirements that this profession makes to the person of the worker. Therefore, it is very important, when choosing a profession, to know these requirements. The profession of the teacher is of the «man-man» type. Let us formulate the requirements for this type of professions. The main content of labor in them is reduced to the interaction between people.
If this interaction does not work, then work does not go well. Therefore, it is essential to have the ability to establish and maintain contacts with people, the ability to understand people, to understand their characteristics. Here is a list of personal qualities that are very important in the teacher's work: a stable, good mood in the process of working with children; Need for communication; The ability to mentally put oneself in the place of another person to quickly understand the intentions, thoughts, moods of children; The ability to understand human relationships; A good memory that allows you to keep in mind the knowledge of the personal qualities of a large number of people; The ability to find a common language with different people; patience.
If the requirements of a teacher's profession to a person coincide with his personal qualities and capabilities, then they speak of professional suitability. The basis of professional suitability lies primarily in the abilities of the individual. This term is usually understood as such individual psychological characteristics of a person, which help him to succeed in any activity. To understand the inclinations, interests in this field of work, the future teacher will benefit from the experience of social, organizational, supervising work in school, camp, etc. Among the younger ones, the experience of participation in the organization of collective, group events. At the same time, this does not necessarily mean the social work that is entrusted, so to speak, officially. Perhaps, even more important for self-knowledge is the field of one's own initiative. If the younger comrades «stick» to the person, if he manages to unite them for some business that seems trivial to others (say, cut out whistles, feed the stray cats, etc.), then this may be a sign of a person developing Pedagogical or organizational interests, inclinations. And where the inclination, there will be also the ability.
Their abilities students who want to become a teacher can check by visiting the camp leader. If the guys are interesting to him, because he is an inventor, he can organize schoolchildren for good deeds. If he can awaken in the children initiative, initiative, skillfully leading their thoughts and deeds. And if he does not command, but carries the team. Has an organizational skill, interest in children, sociability. One can say that he has the ability to become a teacher.
Also, specially created profiling classes help students to test their abilities and identify inclinations. If a child wants to become a teacher, then he can try to lead a lesson in the junior classes under the guidance of the teacher. And if the requirements imposed on the teacher's profession correspond to the personality, then this person can safely choose the profession of the teacher.
It may happen that the psychological characteristics will not fully meet the requirements of the profession that they want to choose. But you do not have to go. After all, many of a person's abilities, if he wants, can develop in himself.
And so, the teacher is chosen profession. The main condition for its selection was the compliance with the requirement of this type of profession.
The second stage in the formation of the true authority of the teacher-educator is the mastery of pedagogical skill.
First, mastering the terms of pedagogical skill occurs in special educational institutions. The process of pedagogical preparation of the future teacher should be organized in a sequence that corresponds to the patterns of mastering knowledge and mastering skills and skills.
At the first stage, the student needs to get enough theoretical knowledge in psychology, pedagogy, information about pedagogical skills, about their content and structure, about the actions and skills from which they form, about the ways and methods of mastering them. It is important for the student to understand what he can learn through lectures, seminars and other forms of academic work (independent work, term papers, theses), and that depends on himself, on his ability to observe pedagogical phenomena, from his aspirations and Activity in the development itself. This stage must implement pedagogical practice, so that the latter does not become a trial and error path, and that, because of its inefficiency, does not lead to disappointment in the possibilities of pedagogical activity. This acquaintance with psychological and pedagogical disciplines, in theory and practice of teaching and educating students.
The natural consequence of the first stage, which creates the necessary guidelines for the adoption of pedagogical decisions, is the stage of pedagogical practice (for example, in school, in a camp). It can be implemented in a variety of ways: an exercise on the analysis of pedagogical situations, the construction of models of pedagogical behavior, practical pedagogical activities conducted by students with children, etc.
All these options are united by one common idea — the future teacher himself needs to do everything he knows about, but he practically did not perform, and therefore he does not know how to do it. The skill is the result of the corresponding action, and the action of the one who takes possession of them. Hence, only adequate action is a means of mastering the skill. It is well known that knowing how to act does not mean being able to act like that.
For the practical teaching and educational work of the future teacher, aesthetic self-education is also important. Aesthetic tastes of the teacher are manifested in everything: in its appearance, in manners, gait, actions, in relations to the surrounding world, to work.
Literature and art play an important role in the development of the aesthetic culture of the future teacher. With their help, his thoughts, feelings and deeds, his whole personality are ennobled, thus the main components of the pedagogical authority of the teacher-educator are laid in educational institutions.
Further development of the main components and mastery of pedagogical skill occurs during teaching in the school. The right to teach a teacher gives a diploma about the graduation of a pedagogical school. This is a formal level of authority. It is characterized by the presence of power and is based on the role of authority.
In the assertion of pedagogical authority, the primary role is played by primary self-reprinting, when the teacher appears as an official endowed with certain powers of authority, and children as his pupils and pupils. At the first meeting with pupils, it is necessary to tactfully persuade them that not only because of the diploma in their pocket and age, but due to extensive knowledge and high culture, a person has the right to lead the team, become a teacher. In the first lesson, you should not get acquainted with the students, calling them through the magazine. While talking with one, the rest are messing around. And in a moment of idleness, K. D. Ushinsky noted, a person's head and heart and morality deteriorate... The first meeting with pupils should be a holiday, fireworks.
The age of children has a serious impact on the process of formation of pedagogical authority. So, first-graders prevail unlimited authority of the teacher in all spheres of activity. Teenagers and young men are characterized by its «specification» — narrowing the sphere of unconditional influence, recognizing it only in one or several areas.
The acquisition of pedagogical authority in a particular class depends on the level of development of group consciousness, the established system of leadership, on who of the guys rules, the ball and how the teacher's relationship develops with them.
In the end, the character of authoritative relations is conditioned by the extent to which the personality of the teacher is fully and multifaceted in the pedagogical communication, as it translates not only knowledge, but also personal meanings, making the students' knowledge of the uniqueness and richness of their individuality.
Today, like a hundred years ago, the words of K. D. Ushinsky that the influence of the teacher's personality constitutes an educational force that cannot be replaced by textbooks, moral sentiments, or a system of punishments and rewards.
- Kondratiev M.Yu. Components of authority. — M.: Knowledge, 1988.
- Krupskaya N. K. Pedagogical compositions: In 10 TM, 1959.T.3.
- Likhachev B. Pedagogy: The course of lectures, — M.: 1996. -с.142–147.
- Makarenko A. S. About education. — Moscow: School Press, 2003. -192с.
- Mitina L. M. Teacher as a person and a professional. -M.: The Case, 1994.-216с