Changes in the administrative-political and regional administrative system of the cities of Fergana valley (in the example of 1917–1924 years)
Автор: Мансуров Улугбек Умарович
Рубрика: 4. История отдельных процессов, сторон и явлений человеческой деятельности
Дата публикации: 06.03.2014
Статья просмотрена: 3 раза
Мансуров У. У. Changes in the administrative-political and regional administrative system of the cities of Fergana valley (in the example of 1917–1924 years) [Текст] // История и археология: материалы II Междунар. науч. конф. (г. Пермь, май 2014 г.). — Пермь: Меркурий, 2014. С. 57-61.
The beginning of ХХ century is one of the periods in which the most serious change took place in the history of Turkistan. During the past decades the processes done in the region drifted into the surface of social life, and opened the deep stinginess which encircled its basis. The processes appeared due to the outer and inner factors were not naturally the same, but they were single by the aspect of their destructive influence. In the beginning of ХХ century the territory of the present Uzbekistan included the Turkistan general governorship which was founded after the Empire of Russia conquered Central Asia and added as a colony in its structure, the emirate of Bukhara and the khanate of Khiva.
Among them Turkistan general governorship was in the first place by its territory and population. Turkistan general governorship composed of Samarqand, Sirdarya, Fergana, Caspian and Ettisuv provinces. The population of Turkistan was more than five million people, most of them were the Uzbek, the Tajik, the Kirgiz, the Kazak, the Turkmen and other nations. All of them were Muslims believing in Islam.
In the beginning of ХХ century Kokand uyezd was situated in the west of Fergana valley, its total area was 12701 square verst, and the population was 460 thousand people. According to the national composition, the Uzbek were 358 thousand people, the Tajik were 52 thousand people, the Kirgiz were 19 thousand people, the Russian were 16 thousand people, the Karakalpak were 7 thousand people and other nations. Administratively the uyezd ((Russian) smallest administrative unit until 1923) was divided into 23 volost ((Russian) smallest administrative unit in Tsarist Russia), 137 rural communities. Also, Kokand city consisted of 4 police officers and 4 local chiefs which were under the command of the head local chief. All the population of the uyezd was separated into Kokand city and 828 communities. Kokand city functioned as a centre in the trade not only of the uyezd, but also of Fergana valley. In 1917 the population of the city was 115 thousand people. Kokand uyezd was divided into Prigorodniy, Kudash, Serova and Yangikurgan districts. The new and the old parts of the city in Kokand were joined each other. The territory of the new part of the city was 310 dessiatina (measure of land = 10,900 sq. metres or 2.7 acres) including residences and gardens, and the population was 31117 people. 12213 of them were Russians, 18904 of them were the local nations. In the new part of the city there was a hospital with 110 places, and 2 doctors, 4 assistances of the doctors, 2 midwives worked there. The old part of the city together with residences and gardens was 1239 dessiatina.
Every city in the valley had their own territory as followings1: The territory of Fergana city was 913 dessiatina, the territory of Kokand city was 2149 dessiatina, the territory of Margilan city was 1868 dessiatina, the territory of Namangan city was 3489 dessiatina and the territory of Andijan city was 3045 dessiatina.
There were 7 cities in Fergana valley. They were divided into New Margilan, 4 uyezds (Kokand, Namangan, Andijan and Osh) and 2 cities without uezd (Old Margilan, Chust)2.
In 1917 2 million 45 thousands of the population of Fergana province lived in the villages and 388 thousands lived in towns3. In 1920 the population of Turkistan was 5664500 people and the population of Fergana was 2 million 112 thousand people and it comprised 37,3 % of the population of Turkistan4. In 1920 64,8 % of the population of Fergana valley was comprised of Uzbeks, and only 19,2 % of them lived in towns5. Also, in Fergana valley 362900 people were Kirgiz, 10700 people were Karakalpak, 42500 people were Kipchak (they lived mainly in Northern Fergana, Andijan and Namangan), 167800 people were Tajik (they lived in Namangan and Kokand uyezds).
In the result of the February burgeuous democratic revolution happened in Russia in February 1917, the system of monarchy was turned down and the Temporary government under the leadership of Kerenskiy was founded. In 1917 the council of worker-farmers and soldiers was organized in Andijan, Skobelev, Namangan and Osh on March 3 and in Kokand city on March 4. In 1917 on March 14 the election was held for Andijan uyezd-city executive committee6. According to the result of the elections Maslov, F. T. Chaykin, V. A. Tursunkhodjaev, Braizgalov, Rozaliev, Sumarokov were elected to the council of worker-farmers and soldiers.
In Turkistan the work of Councils especially played an important role in solving the national problems. They began to be founded after the February revolution. Up to March of 1917 their number increased to 75. In Fergana, Tashkent, Samarkand, Andijan, Osh and other cities the councils of Muslim worker deputies and in Kokand Skobelev, Margilan cities the councils of Muslim workers, Ittifaq (the Union), the council of the poor, the union of Muslim workers were established7.
In November 1917 in Namangan city the council of worker and soldier deputies was organized. In the meeting of the new elected deputies the new composition of the executive committee was elected. G.Bildin (a worker, a member of RSDWP), S.Daudyans (an Armenian, a servant, the head of bolsheviks’faction of RSDWP), I Khokhlov (a servant, the head of the social revolutionarys’faction) were at the head of the city executive committee8. None of the local people representatives was included in the position of chairmanship. Also, there were only three or four uneducated workers from the local people representatives. They didn’t participate in the work of the executive committee at all.
There were administrative positions with different names in Fergana valley. For example, in Andijan they were called “Duma”, In Osh “Oqsoqol”, in Kokand “Qurboshi”9. In 1918 May Duma was dispersed in Old Margilan, Osh and Skobelev(Fergana), and in December in Andijan. According to the decision of the meeting of Namangan city worker-soldiers and Muslim deputies held on May 14 in 1918, Namangan city Duma and the city administration were dispersed10. In 1918 on June 20 the chairman of the council of Fergana valley Krutikov approved this decision11. In 1918 on May 12 the chairman of Deputies’ council of Namangan city I. T. Hohlov, a member of executive committee Surobov having checked the work of Chust city state Duma, didn’t satisfied with its work. It was confirmed that the head oqsoqol of the Duma Fayozboev and his secretary Mirzahamid Mirzakhujaev hadn’t held any meeting among the members of the Duma in the past years and their work was taken under the criticism12. In May 1918 the Duma of Chust city was dispersed13.
During 1918 in the result of destruction of the local self-governing authorities the control on the local economy and cultural establishments passed completely to the hand of the new government.
In 1918 on January 17 the Council of Osh city was founded under the leadership of the Bolsheviks. A. G. Anoshin was elected as the chairman of the Council and Kudrat Abdurasulov was elected as an assistant. In 1918 on February 5 in the uyezd of Osh the government of Bolsheviks was set up14. In 1918 on December 9 the revolutionary committee took the control of the administration of the Osh uyezd-town.
From 1918 October to 1919 August the executive committee of the worker and soldier deputies of Namangan uyezd-town worked as the branch of the Soviet government in Namangan uyezd and town. The executive committee of the Namangan uyezd-town council worked under the control of the worker and soldier deputies’ council of Fergana valley. The committee of Namangan uyezd consisted of the following departments: the head of security department of Namangan city, the department of Finance, the committee of Public property15. In September of 1919 the revolutionary committee of Namangan uyezd-town was formed. This revolutionary committee worked from 1919, September to 1921, March 10, and was under the control of the revolutionary committee of Fergana valley. The revolutionary committee consisted of the following departments: the detachment of Food, the department of Education, the department of town property, Health department, the department of Finance, the Police department, Social support and Labour department, the department of land and water property, the council of public property, the committee of cotton of the district16. On March 11, 1921 the Namangan uyezd-town council was formed and the first meeting of worker-farmers and soldiers was held. In this meeting the following departments of the executive committee of Namangan uyezd-town were founded: the department of administration, political bureau, military commissariat, the department of land and water property, the council of public property, the department of public property, the department of food, Health department, the inspectorate of workers, communal department, the department of Finance, the department of social support, Labour department17. The council of Namangan uyezd-town, as the higher organ of the government, solved all the questions and problems in the region, and also controlled all the existed establishments and enterprises. The executive committee of Namangan uyezd-town worked under the control of the council of worker and soldier deputies of Andijan okrug.
The question of forming the Turkistan soviet autonomous government was officially looked over in the V congress of the region’s councils in 1918. The congress of the councils of workers, soldiers, farmers and Muslim farmers was introduced as the higher legislative body of ТАSSR, and the Central Executive committee was introduced as the permanent legislative body. It was emphasized that the local councils and their executive committees should do the functions of the government18.
In summer 1920, according to the decision of TurkMIK, Turkcommission and communist party of the region, several works were carried out about the elections for volost and village councils. In 1920 on June 14 the compound meeting of the revolutionary committee of the uyezd-town and the committee of Party took place in Namangan too. According to the decision of it, the governors of volost, the local chiefs of town and villages and the title of ellikboshi (hist. military rank of officer in charge of 40–50 cavalry;title of prerevolutionary minor official) was ended. Immadiately it began to organize the district committees and volost councils. The volost governors in force were not included in the composition of the councils and Revolutionary committees. In Namangan too, instead of local chiefs and mingboshi (head of a local district or town; head of an army, commander) the district committees were organized and the members of the party — communists were appointed to their chairmanship19.
Although the Soviet government was established in Namangan in 1918, January 7, the former administrative customs remained in the uyezd until 192020. Particularly, in the Volosts — volost governors, in the villages — village chiefs, in the residential part of the town — the administration of local chiefs remained21. In 1920 on June 14 in Namangan city, the special compound meeting of the uezd-town revolutionary committee was held about organizing the revolutionary committees in the committees of the Part and uyezd. The chairman’s speech about the questions above was listened to and the following decision were made. “To put an end to the administration of volost, the administration of local chiefs of town and villages. To organize the household associations of town and volost. Not to get the former volost governors into the composition of the new established volost and revolutionary committee”22.
In June and July 1920 in Namangan uyezd the first elections for the local authorities and revolutionary committees were held23. According to it, 29 volosts, 4 villages and 8 district revolutionary committees were established24. The local chiefs, mingboshis in the old part of Namangan city were changed to block committees. On October, 1920 the 4 district governors of the old city were newly appointed. Ismoil Babaraimov was appointed to Labbaytoga district, Abdulqori Toshboev was appointed to Degrezlik district, Marufkhuja Akhmadkhujaev was appointed to Chukurkucha district, Nusratulla Kurbonov was appointed to Sardoba district25.
On May 26, 1922 the Central Executive Committee of Turkistan introduced the judges’ power of attorney. According to it, the judges might see the following matters in the circle of their power of attorney. 1). Family events. 2). Inheritance. 3). Civil affairs not more than 500 sums. 4). Affairs concerning land not more than 15 tanob (arch. (Arabic) cord used for land measure; cord; unit of land equal to 1/6–1/2 hectare) and others. Judges were elected to their position by the agreement of the local people and the complaints to them were accepted in written form. There were also biy courts in Fergana province, as a rule they saw the affairs of livestock breeders26. In May, 1922 180 judge courts worked in Fergana province27.
In January, 1920 the Central Executive Committee of Turkistan made a decision to name the city of Skobelev as Fergana28. The city was officially called Fergana in 192429.
According to the administrative division, the Republic of Turkistan was divided into 6 provinces in 1922, on February 15. According to it, Fergana province consisted of five uyezds. Namangan uyezd consisted of 29 volosts, Osh uyezd consisted of 14 volosts, Andijan uyezd consisted of 23 volosts, Kokand uyezd consisted of 23 volosts, and Margilan uyezd consisted of 20 volosts30.
There were 64 towns in the Republic of Turkistan in 1923, and 946512 people were registered in them. Particularly, 222789 people lived in the 12 towns in Fergana province and they comprised 23.5 % of the population of the province31.
In 1924 the territory of the cities of Fergana valley was 11466 dessiatina 1.950 square sazhen ['sɑ:ʒen] (measure of length = 2.134 metres). In 1923–1924 the number of the population of Fergana valley was 1297239 people. 222789 people lived in towns and 1074450 people lived in the countries. In 1924 the population of Fergana province was comprised of 68,2 % Uzbeks, 17,2 % Kirgizs, 8,9 % Tajiks, 2,3 % Russians and 3,4 % other nations32. The number of the population of the cities of Fergana province decreased 45 % in 1923 than in 192033. That is, in 1920 the population of the cities of Fergana province was 405301 people, and in 1923 their number decreased to 222789 people.
In conclusion, in the influence of the February revolution in 1917, in Turkistan, particularly, in the cities of Fergana valley the political processes grew active, national organizations and societies were established, Duma began to work in the administration of towns all over the region. In the result of the elections held in summer in 1917 in the cities such as Kokand, Samarkand, Andijan the local people took positions in Dumas. Local political organizations were established in the cities, their members, huge capitalists, local businessmen, progressivists were actively involved in political processes. But, in October, 1917 Bolsheviks took the government by force, and the progress of the events changed. Because, they didn’t let the local people not only in the administration of towns, but also in the government of the region. Though the freedom appeared in the administration of towns in the cities of Fergana valley in the result of the February revolution, the October overthrow put an end to this freedom.
In the result, armed opposite movements against Bolsheviks began. The soviet government was settled by force in the cities of Fergana valley too. But, in this time although Bolsheviks had promised to create a condition for the nations in the places to maintain their own destiny themselves, practically they achieved to put down any kind of movements on this way strictly. The Turkistan autonomous government established in Kokand city ended by force, this case caused to increase the public movements against politics of Bolsheviks in the region. The increase of the internecine struggles intensified the socio-economic situation and moral situation in the cities.
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