Annotation.Nowadays no one is surprised to realize that translation from one language into another is not an easy task for most people. But few people understand how to communicate with a representative of another country, came to a mutual understanding using a foreign language. The purpose of this study is to examine the problems of translation in general such as semantic voids, lexical meaning and problems, straight and denotative meaning, work with metaphors, syntactic problems etc. Theoretical methods have been used to achieve this goal. The result of this study is to confirm the facts concerning the necessity and importance of analysis of scientific works of recent years indicates a growing interest in peculiarities of correct translation from the point of view of the work of an interpreter and an author; the study of translation strategies etc. The result of this research is more in-depth understanding of translation on the whole from reader’s point of view and the nature of communication.
Keywords:translation, information flows, culture, code, information objects, the text interpreter, status, the impact on the reader, literature, conditions of work, communication, languages.
To begin with, the necessary condition for at least a superficial understanding of people is the exchange of information. Information available to us in the form of a sequence of thoughts, feelings and hunches, set of images, desires and delusions. The quantity, quality and dynamics of the information determine the practical activities of the individual, including ― and the nature of communication. Understanding the other person ― it means to organize their information flows so that they fit his thinking. And since the mind-reading we can not, then, to convey information, it is necessary to transfer the material carrier ― that is, code .
We call text ordered amount of information for dissemination. Turning to the text, the information deliberately distorted. Most often, it is simplified, resulting usually in limited interpretation. If the amount of information contained in the text increases with time, he begins to live an independent life. We call texts, approaching the complexity of the structure of the human psyche, and capable of independent existence, information objects.
When reading any text ― even if it is not an information object ― inevitably second distortion: information contained in it, complex interacts with the information flow of the reader. As a result, he can perceive the information in any way adequately not only because of his personal qualities, but in view of the fact .
If an author and a reader are of different cultures, the problem of information exchange between them is complicated by many times. The mapping of the different areas of information space is called translation.
One of the simplest examples of a broadcast is a translation from one language to another ― a set of operations that establish a correspondence between the texts belonging to different cultures. If the original and the translated text is the same, the languages between which compliance can be called equivalent. It is clearly or not but, in most cases, to expect a complete matching between the text interpreter is not necessary. By the way, not all languages are adequate. Eskimo language, for example, does not contain abstract concepts .
The fact that there is an untranslatable language constructs from differences in cultures, “untranslatable” is a consequence of the fact that in one of the psyche cannot be implemented simultaneously conflicting information structures.
We will avoid many problems if we recognize the work of an interpreter and an author dependent enjoying full rights to the text he created .
The right of authorship, of course, must be preserved and reverse translation. The author, who ottransliruet to English “Keepers” and A. Kistyakovskogo V. Muraveva will receive all rights to the lyrics he created. In all likelihood, it does not give rise to particular legal or moral issues. Most likely, the new ― the translated twice ― the text is not much different from the original, and thus falls under the law of plagiarism. In case of significant differences, it almost certainly will be worse than the original (reduced interpretations in translation!). If it is, suddenly be better than the original, we can only congratulate the translator and readers!
Thus, the “Day of the Triffids” D. Wyndham, “Sargasso in Space” E. Norton, as well as, perhaps, some works of Ernest Hemingway would greatly benefit from the back-translation into English. There is reason to believe that the reverse translation from English to Russian and not damage the books of L. N. Tolstoy .
The proposed approach is, of course, is contrary to the Berne and Geneva conventions on copyright. But, in my opinion, an agreement based on the mistaken view of the absolute and unconditional priority of the original, flawed and should be repealed. They will be canceled ― simply because that prevents the free flow of information. The only question is, how late .
There is “standard of living” for reflection, not determined by the degree of true intimacy in the world. Therefore, the criterion of translation quality assessment should consider the impact on the reader dependent text generated by the translator. A criterion for matching the original is secondary .
In my opinion, “Nine Princes in Amber” M. Gilinskogo ― excellent literature ― sensitive!
Similarly, we must commend the tale Volkova (in any case ― the first of them), treating them as a competent contextual translation by L. Frank Baum. Retellings B. Zakhoder can also be considered as contextual translations of Alice and Winnie the Pooh.
In general, translations, like reflections, can be as much, and not all of them can be correlated on the basis of “better or worse” .
To sum up I dare say that translation may not be equivalent to the original text, no matter what the text, and whatever meaning we might mean by “equivalent.”
Perhaps the solution to the problem of translation does not lie in the plane of linguistics. If it is impossible to adequately translate the text, it may be possible, translate the psyche of the reader? Imagine this: You buy a book in the store, and with it the knowledge of the language and features of the culture comes. Under the “Exchange minds” R. Shekli: “I will dwell in the house, you get the right to use the furniture.”
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