Forms of educational process in teaching a foreign language
Новикова В. С. Forms of educational process in teaching a foreign language // Молодой ученый. 2015. №8. С. 1015-1017.
At present, higher education is particularly acute issue of the effective training of student, the future specialist, his potential either during a learning process, or outside the university. Higher education institution has always been and remains the only source of replenishment of young highly qualified people to our society. Tomsk Polytechnic University, non-language, technical high school has an important aim — to ensure the quality of education, taking into account the needs of the labor market and employers. Foreign language is one of the important indicators of professional skill of the engineer, and of course, it is welcomed to business and industry. The aim of this work is to examine the main forms of organization of educational process which motivate students to study a foreign language, highlighting the most relevant form within the technical university.
The educational process is based on evidence-based patterns of interaction between person and information. In process of learning student achieves certain educational results; he has to work with an increasing and constantly updated informational flow in different areas of knowledge; he learns to express his thoughts and ideas (oral and written) confidently and correctly in relation to others; to form his own opinions on the basis of understanding different experiences, ideas and concepts; to solve problems; to cooperate in a group. For technical university learning a foreign language — is the use of it in practice. The teacher′s task — to activate every student′ motivation in the learning process, to create a real-communicative situation on the lesson. Thus, the purpose of learning a foreign language — formation of ability to use in practice foreign language in various situations of communication. Consequently, teacher should introduce problematic tasks in the process of learning; involve students in active participation in the process of teaching and learning; give the opportunity to express their own opinions, feelings, share experiences; bring to the pair and group work; create a situation close to the realities of life; develop the students' concept of «independence». Knowledge of foreign languages greatly enhances competitiveness and professional mobility of the young specialist of technical university. The effectiveness of the learning process is definitely depends on the choice of forms of organization and so on. Forms of organization of educational process affect the volume, depth and awareness of learning, skills of students, development of their independence and creative activity, improvement of educative role of learning. Therefore, teacher must have a thorough knowledge about the organizational forms of the educational process: its origin, development, state, diversity, the pros and cons of each of them, the comparative effectiveness; the conditions under which one or another form can bring the best results of training and education. In other words, to use some forms of training, some combinations of the organizational forms of the educational process you have to be competent in this regard.
There are different classifications of forms of organization of educational process in a foreign language. All forms can be divided into general and specific. General organizational forms of training include: frontal, individual, group, collective and pair.
Individual form of academic work involves student′s activity for performing common tasks for the entire group without contact with other students, that is his work, but in the same pace for all students. Frontal work involves the entire group on the task at a sufficiently tight control of the teacher. During the frontal form of work students who have low educational opportunities lag behind the rest of the group, having no time for the tempo of work. If the teacher reduces the pace of work, adjusting to them, it will deter stronger ones. So, this form of organization is not so effective, and does not meet the requirements of the time.
Definitely, individual work involves individualization of learning, the use of a differentiated approach, while the frontal work can not ensure it practically. Individual form of work involves the development of self-esteem of students, their cognitive independence, promotes self-absorption of knowledge, formation of skills that is an important point, as was mentioned above. On the one hand, this form of work leads to cheating, characterized by a lack of social activity of students. On the other hand, students themselves can participate in the selection of material for the lesson and feel more self-reliant. Many tests enable instant self-examination, that are time-limited, but which lead to the formation of fast work skills. There are tests of different levels, involving the analysis of errors. Students will acquire skills of independent work, become more confident in their abilities. Use of Internet allows to organize both individual and collective work, combining the functionality of the communication and information tools and technical support activities of the student and the teacher.
For instance, Power Point presentation on the topic of study of the educational process. This form of control allows to visualize and convincingly demonstrate ability to manage acquired knowledge and skills. This type of work is undoubtedly helpful in future career of students in today's society, namely to create presentations for conference, to introduce ideas, advertising, proposals and achievements. But supporters of the traditional teaching methods may argue that we used to do it without the personal computer in the classroom, and it was not bad. The results were quite high, students have successfully mastered the knowledge and skills necessary for further education. However, the focus should primarily be on student as an individual. He is creative person, active, rather than passively accepting the fact that offers him a teacher. And our students dictate totally different methods and approaches to learning. They seek to express themselves, and not only in the results of their work, but also in the inner spiritual world.
Group form of educational process, as an individual, is of great importance for the development of self-reliance. The main objective of group work — development of the way of thinking. Working as a team, student receives a real opportunity to take the initiative, learning to plan his actions, to prove correctness of his reasoning, to be responsible for the action of the whole group and his own. This form of work creates an incentive to creative competition between groups, thereby increasing interest in the process of teaching and learning the language, which is important for many technical universities. This form of work combines small groups (3–4 students), where there is an opportunity to talk more with each other, and makes the need for common solutions; the teacher is not the central figure, he becomes moderator. Here is an example, groups get parts of the text that should be connected in the correct order to complete the story logically. Another example of group form — a project plan («Ideal Enterprise»). This form of organization has a communicative, creative pattern. The conclusion result is seen as creating own projects and student subsequent presentation. It should be noted that in teaching foreign languages in a technical university the principle of considering specialty plays the greatest role. The principle includes study situations and the oral professional communication, reading texts, literature on the specialty, required samples of writing, because the acquisition of language in a technical high school is required to meet the challenges related to future profession of students. It should be remembered also that for students of non-language specialties subject of a foreign language is secondary one. In most cases, the level of foreign language is low. In educational process this issue is relevantly considered.
Denoting the goal of learning a foreign language, it should be noted that such type of activity as an educational game can be used either in the individual or in pair form, in group form in the classroom, where the teacher acts as a subject, initiator and organizer, and students as an object of this action. Different conditions show that student can also act as the subject of this action. Students perceive certain information, present it in the process of communicating with each other and with the teacher, exchanging opinions, agreeing or disagreeing with someone. [1, p.58] There are many examples of games. Situation — you are two students, graduated from the university, and plan what to do: to continue your postgraduate education, to go to work, to get a second degree. This example is directed to a rapid and logically thought out decision of problematic task for a limited time in class. Pair kind of work, in this case, helps students to peer review actions and deeds of each other. Although this work involves the active participation of students for a short time.
In a collective form of organization of educational process in a foreign language student works in turn with different members of the team, and vice versa, all students take turns working with everyone. This form helps to show initiative of students, increasing responsibility for their knowledge to others. In addition, collective form becomes an active cognitive activity, communicative. It is worth noting the importance of excellent teacher preparation in this form of work. You must be able to use the time in class properly, to form a team (to collect them with the general idea). Teamwork also goes beyond classes: project work, excursions.
Nowadays, project-based learning (project method) is an alternative method for learning a foreign language. Project-based learning is always focused on the independent activity of students — individual, pair, group work that students perform for a certain period of time. This approach integrates seamlessly with a group (cooperative learning) approach. Project-based learning always involves solving problems, which, on the one hand, use a variety of methods, learning tools, and on the other, the integration of knowledge, skills from various fields of science, engineering, technology, creative areas. Results of the project should be what is called «touchable», i.e., if it is a theoretical problem, then its actual solution, if practical, actual results. [2, p. 67]. For example, students could be asked to prepare presentation «Enterprise of Russia». In the process, it is necessary to give basic information about the activity of the plant (enterprise): its purpose, history, structure, production, etc. The first step is the analysis of the basic vocabulary on the topic, preparation for the oral presentation (review of the main criteria for presentation evaluation), as well as work with websites and web links in computer class. Also, in order to increase interest in this type of work teacher can organize tour with students to any enterprise, if it is possible. The second step in project work is collecting of the material, its review, simplification. Students give enterprise presentations, answering questions of other students on the subject, lead the discussion.
Accordingly, this type of activity helps students to think creatively and to implement their ideas, using the language material. Project-based learning is characterized by high communication; active involvement of students in learning activities; the creation of a firm language base; development of the individual student, as well as the professional interest of students in learning language.
The use of different forms of organization of educational process in a foreign language in a technical university ensures the successful assimilation of information, leads to the achievement of learning objectives, allows real communication in a foreign language. The above-mentioned types of forms of organization activate the learning process, make it more productive, form and develop learning motivation. Thus, within the framework of a technical high school it will be better to combine all of the forms, thus we do not focus on the average student, and there is a variety of learning process content, the development of student's cognitive activity and independence of students. The realization of the educational process in many forms provides work in foreign language lessons with students of different knowledge levels and allows us to achieve positive results.
In order to improve the effectiveness of the material it seems important to use and combine components of all forms of organization in educational process, that increases the motivation to learn a foreign language. As a good example, the use of project method in the educational process increases the motivation.
1. Maslyko, E.A., Babinskay, P. K. Nastolnaya kniga ychitelya [Handbook of foreign language teachers].Minsk, 1996. Pp.58–59.
2. Polat, E. S. Novye pedagogicheskie tekhnologii [New pedagogical technologies].Manual for teachers. Moscow, 1997. P.67.