In recent decades, thanks to the development of new and improvement of existing methods of molecular genetic study of the genomes of living organisms, there is an active development of agricultural biotechnology. One of the results of this activity is the production and the widespread introduction of a new agricultural genetically modified plant varieties. To date, there are a number of international agreements governing the preservation, as well as establishing the appropriate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of such varieties. Establishment and adoption of techniques and methods of control, management and control of the risks associated with the creation, use and distribution of GM varieties, as well as the development of appropriate procedures for assessing the potential adverse effects of genetically modified organisms on the conservation of biodiversity.
Formulated in the 1198g. Principles of environmental protection with the release of GMOs into the nature of demand, firstly, to assess when will the harmful effects of the release of GMOs on human health and natural systems, and secondly, to identify when GMOs or products would be harmful when ingested food consumption, Third, determine whether GMO produce the positive effect for which they were created and to ensure that excluded any damage or human nature when GMOs appear in different regions of the world and different ecosystems.
According to forecasts of International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, 2011-2015gg.na in the global market should appear next GM crops: in 2013 golden rice figure appears in the Philippines, and then in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Vietnam; 2013-2014gg.nachilos in production of GM rice and phytase maize enriched in China; drought-resistant corn appeared in the US in 2012, and in tropical Africa - in 2017 .; in 2015 and subsequent years will begin the cultivation of GM crops with enhanced absorption of nitrogen and GM wheat.
To date, more than 75% of the world population lives in countries where GMOs are allowed either to grow or to apply, or to import.
One of the most debated and controversial issues related to the distribution or use of GMOs, was the problem of the potential impact of GM products (products derived from GMOs or containing ingredients) on human health.
The situation is aggravated by the fact that a full range of research on the impact of GMOs on human and animal organisms has not yet been posted. Assessment of dietary risk from consumption of GM products currently available only on the basis of fragmentary data and disparate scientific facts. According to experts, in order to identify all the risks associated with GMOs, it is necessary to examine the implications of GMO cultivation and breeding in all conditions, as well as the impact of GM products on all groups of living organisms, to trace the possible genetic, teratological, immunological and endocrinological changes in all organ systems and polo-age groups of people. Neither theoretically nor practically impossible to carry out such studies.
That is why many scientists fear that the use of GM food products increases the risk of food allergies, poisoning, mutations contribute to tumor formation and cause resistance to antibiotics.
GM products can be divided into three categories :
• Products containing GM ingredients (mainly transgenic corn and soya). These additives are included in foodstuffs, sweeteners, colorants, as well as substances which increase the protein content.
• Products of transgenic materials (such as soy to create, soy milk, tomato paste).
• Transgenic vegetables and fruits.
The most likely potential food risks with GM products include :
Ø Direct effect of toxic and allergenic GM transgenic proteins of humans and other warm-blooded.
Allergies to food - a phenomenon quite common and has been steadily growing among the population in developed countries. This is due primarily to unfavorable environmental conditions, changes in the traditional diet of modern technology and the food industry, leading to increased levels of food additives and chemical preservatives.
Usually, the allergenic or toxic effects have transgenic proteins providing resistance to the recipient plants afflicted with various kinds of insects, fungal or bacterial diseases.
Thus, in a number of publications, discussed allergenic effects of transgenic proteins chitinases capable of destroying the wall chitin pests. Chitinase genes modified by different varieties of rice, potatoes, wheat and other crops.
Thus, lectin narcissus, has a pronounced properties insecticide, mutagenic, and the most powerful mutagenic effect shown in lymphocyte cultures of human embryos.
Proteins lectins were among the first in the formation of transgenic resistance to insect pests. Chitin-binding lectins from wheat germ and beans have enormous potential insecticidal, but toxic to mammals. A number of transgenic maize varieties that are resistant to insect pests, produce lignin substance that prevents infected plants.
Ø Risks pleiotropic effects of transgenic proteins in the plant metabolism.
Nutritional risks may be associated with a pleiotropic effect of transgenic proteins themselves and their ability to influence the work of other genes. The consequence of this effect can be a change in the metabolism of the plant cell and accumulation therein of substances hazardous to health. Services provided scientists to create transgenic plants with resistance to environmental factors and to increase productivity, a key enzyme used arginine decarboxylase. The result of increased synthesis of this enzyme in transgenic rice is the high content of agmatine and secondary products of its decomposition. These substances are able to influence cell division and promote the formation of tumors.
Ø Risks mediated accumulation of herbicides and their metabolites in resistant varieties and species of agricultural plants.
The creation of transgenic plant varieties resistant to herbicides on the one hand gives a big economic impact, on the other - increases the extent of their use.
To assess the safety of the food use of such varieties need to know: What is the ability of these varieties to the accumulation of hazardous insecticides and was not whether the accumulation of other toxic metobolitov or allergens. It should be noted that nearly all pesticides are toxic to humans. For example, a widely used pesticide glyphosate is carcinogenic and causes the formation of lymphoma.
When processing glyphosate-resistant varieties it plants accumulate metobolity toxic glyphosate.
Ø Risks horizontal transfer of transgenic constructs.
Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria is well known. During the evolution of gene exchange was carried out between them, and between bacteria, viruses. Many of the human genes are of bacterial or viral origin. The ability to exchange DNA fragments bacteria remain still. This property of bacteria is directly related to environmental and nutritional risks of using GMOs.
It is clear that when talking about the health risks associated with GMOs have in mind primarily the risks associated with the consumption of products derived from them. The strategy of the safety assessment of genetically modified foods is based on the principle of "substantial equivalence". According to this principle, the estimated level of security is not new food per se, but its change in comparison with traditional food counterparts, have a long history of safe use.
To identify new products and the feedstock excellent characteristics from analogues which affect the level of safety and nutritional value of food products under scrutiny information concerning the characteristics of the original organism from which the gene is taken intended for transgenesis and the nature of the genetic modification. Next, a comparative analysis of genetically modified organisms and the original organism. This is compared for agronomic performance products inserted genes, the composition of the key chemical components, the profile of the major metabolites, the effects of processing of the feedstock.
Environmental risks of GMOs cause the limitations and dangers that arise from the laws of genetic and environmental variability of living organisms. Therefore, assessing the role of genetic engineering in plant breeding, especially in terms of overcoming barriers of incompatibility at any level, should take into account the constraints imposed by the following factors: the unpredictability of global ecological imbalance of natural and human systems; the risk of loss of biological and genetic diversity of ecosystems; the effect of "pesticide boomerang"; environmental hazard-protected Bt and other transgenic plants.
Risks associated with GMOs or products thereof should be considered in the context of the risks that exist when using intact recipient organisms in the potential receiving environment. After all potentially hazardous to human health and the environment may be varieties, strains of organisms derived by conventional breeding. In order to isolate the effect of genetic modification, it is necessary to compare the genetically modified organism with the original, conventional varieties.
General procedure for the risk assessment of possible adverse effects of GMOs includes the following steps:
Ø identification of any novel genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with the presence of the transgene, which may cause adverse effects of GMOs on human health and the environment;
Ø assessment of the likelihood of adverse effects on the basis of the intensity, duration and nature of the impact of genetically modified organisms on human or potential receiving environment;
Ø evaluation of the consequences if these adverse effects will occur;
Ø estimation of the overall risk posed by GMOs in the evaluation of the likelihood and consequences of the identified effects;
Ø A recommendation as to whether the risks are acceptable or manageable, including, if necessary, strategies such risks .
At this point clear at least nine groups of risks of GMOs and GM food for wildlife and humans:
1) the emergence of new hazardous properties of viruses and bacteria. Viruses can be more aggressive and less species-specific.
2) an adverse effect on human health. Distribution of different forms of allergies. In particular, it is suspected that the infant formula, which include GM soybean, began to cause a greater degree than before allergy in children.
3) the threat of natural biodiversity. The spread of GMOs leads to a reduction in species diversity of plants, where they are grown.
4) The threat to the diversity of native species and varieties. Distribution GMO leads to lower grades and a variety of other breeds. This diversity - the basis of sustainable agriculture.
5) the emergence of new pests and weeds. Genes for resistance to pesticides, falling from GMOs to the wild species, not previously converted to agriculture dangerous species in the weeds and pests.
6) clogging of traditional varieties of transgenic forms. As a result of uncontrolled pollination of non-transgenic varieties occurs deterioration and loss of purity of the traditional varieties.
7) the transition to new pests traditional culture. If some plant varieties using GM technology made unattractive to pests, it may encourage the development of new pests, before mass does not strike taxonomically close plants.
8) violation of the natural control of pest outbreaks. In nature, each species has natural enemies and parasites that do not allow one species to multiply excessively. Exposure to toxins GM plants on the free-predatory and parasitic insects would violate the hardest-established millions of years of evolution of interactions in ecosystems, including - to uncontrollable outbursts of some species and the extinction of others.
9) depletion and disruption of the natural soil fertility. GM plants with genes that accelerate growth and development, to a much greater extent than usual, deplete the soil and disrupt its structure.
Wide-scale commercial use of GMOs is accompanied not only environmental, agricultural risks and challenges of political and economic nature. Since the cut-and-pasted into another organism gene legally considered as "invention" and "intellectual property", companies producing GMOs are entitled to royalties. This leads to the dependence of the national agricultural production by multinational biotech corporations and thus poses a threat to national food security. In this regard, the role of plant genetic resources, their conservation and reproduction increases many times. Overestimate their importance in terms of expansion and deepening of the global ecological crisis is very difficult. Loss of biodiversity will inevitably lead to practical realization of the potential of food, environmental and agronomic risks, and as a consequence, to the deterioration of living standards human inability to maintain its health at the proper level and deterioration of the welfare of all mankind.
Here are some examples of unintentional spread of GMO in some regions of the world. In April 2005, China Hubei Province, located in close proximity to the centers of origin of biodiversity and wild rice in China were found illegitimate planting GM samples of this culture. In June of the same year it was established transgenic contamination of rice from Hubei rice Gunzhou, the largest city in northern China. Bt-transgenic rice was obtained by scientists biotech company Huazhong Agricultural University in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province. Throughout 2003-2005. They conducted extensive field testing Bt-rice, which caused the illegal distribution of GM rice in Hubei province and beyond. It should be noted that China is exporting rice to the following countries: Japan, Korea, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Italy, France, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Australia.
Thus, it can be concluded that due to the increasing distribution and use of genetically modified organisms on the planet, food, environmental and agronomic risks become more rounded. On this basis, in the interests of environmental and agronomic security need for speedy development and adoption of measures to reduce the risk of uncontrolled spread of GMOs and unintentional contamination of samples of genetic contamination of GM crops and transgenic .
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