Keywords: flavonoids, bioflavonoids, antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins P- activity, anthocyanins, chalcones, functional beverages, special-purpose beverages, free radicals, gerodietary drinks, cardio vascular system.
Background: Flavonoids are the largest class of plant polyphenols. They are also called bioflavonoids (vitamins C2) or vitamins with P activity. They play an important role in the human body. It is confirmed that flavonoids of stained fruits, such as currants and grapes have a substantial antioxidant effect which exceeds vitamin C dozen times. Flavonoids can have an antispasmodic action, that is, they are able to have the dilate effect on the vessels of the body. They have a beneficial effect on metabolic processes in the myocardium, inhibit thrombus formation. Bioflavonoids do not allow platelets to adhere and aggregate on the walls of blood vessels. Flavonoids regulate blood viscosity and promote normal blood clotting. Flavonoids are used to build biological basic substance in cells, namely ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Results: Flavonoids can be developed in non-alcoholic beverage industry, namely in the field of functional beverage and beverage for special purposes. The usage of such drinks in daily life will help to support the body and stimulate the immune system nowadays. They will help to confront adversity of anthropogenes and reduce the teratogenic mutagenic carcinogenic effect.
Research implications: During the research, it was decided to use flavonoids such as grapes and currants. It is these fruits that contain the most surprising number of natural polyphenols. Monitoring of fruit juice has resulted in using the grape, currant and citrus fruit juice. Since the synergy of grape, currant and citrus fruit juice increases the antioxidant capacity up to about 13 times. This fact increases a positive effect.
Conclusions: It will be gerodietary drinks for preventive or genera purposes based on grape and currant juice with a high content of flavonoids, which will be presented in the form of extracts. Their medicinal properties are focused mainly on the cardiovascular system and on the binding of free radicals.
Flavonoids are the largest class of plant polyphenols. They are also called bioflavonoids or vitamins with P activity.
Bioflavonoids, as a rule, are pigments, which impart a variety of plant tissues colouring. Thus, anthocyanins define red, blue, violet coloures, and flavones, flavonols, auron, chalcones (found in citrus fruits) determine yellow and orange ones. But these substances are not useful only for plants. They play important roles in the human body. Most people are not even aware that flavonoids are more common than they think they are. Fruit and vegetables, such as black currant, black grapes, citrus fruit, spinach, beets, and also green tea contain a great number of these substances while either one or another group of plant polyphenols dominates. For example: citrus fruit combines flavonols, chalcones, derivatives of quercetin, while grapes and currants are the best ones containing anthocyanins and proantotsianins and rutin derivatives.
It is confirmed that flavonoids of stained fruits, such as currants and grapes have a substantial antioxidant effect which exceeds vitamin C dozen times. Since people are daily exposed to harmful environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, polluted atmosphere, radiation, there are a great number of free radicals in the body, which have an adverse effect on the inside cells and tissues. Also, free radicals affect and disrupt the synthesis of the necessary substances.
Natural antioxidants can neutralize free radicals, thereby flavonoids protect the body against the destruction of intracellular structures and membranes. There are lots of other functions of these essential natural helpers as well.
Flavonoids can have antispasmodic action, that is, they are able to have the dilate influence on the vessels of our body. It is the vessels of the brain, and coronary blood vessels that nourish our heart. Flavonoids are able to cross the blood brain barrier which is one to prevent the inflow of foreign substances into the brain. It is this function that confirms that flavonoids are the products of natural origin. They also have a beneficial effect on metabolic processes in the myocardium, inhibit thrombus formation. Moreover, bioflavonoids do not allow platelets to adhere and aggregate on the walls of the blood vessels. Furthermore, flavonoids regulate blood viscosity and promote normal blood clotting. Aggregation of platelets is the first step in the formation of the blood clots. They can clog the arteries and result in myocardial infarction. Plant polyphenols are the strongest hepatoprotectors that improve the efficiency of the liver and they excrete the toxins from it. Flavonoids are also used to build biological complex compounds in the cell, namely ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Anthocyanin class of polyphenols stimulates enzyme activity and promotes the excretion of carcinogenic substances which are of teratogenic and mutagenic action (nowadays it is impossible to avoid it you can only reduce your exposure and minimize it.)
Flavonoids and rutin derivatives (dihydroquercetin) are able to normalize and control collagen synthesis in skin cells. They are also able to inhibit cancer at the early stages (cells of malignant tumors invade normal tissue by enzymes called matrix-metalloproteinases). After the introduction of a normal tissue, cancer is growing rapidly because it is powerful enough due to the developing blood vessels in it. This phenomenon is called angiogenesis.
Aurons, chalcones and flavonols have anti-inflammatory effect, which gives the right to cosmetologists, perfume manufacturers and cosmetics industry producers to use their facilities in skincare.
It was shown that proanthocyanidins have the ability to inactivate the hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion, excelling in many times the low molecular weight of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins are the fraction which is associated with up to 80 % of the overall antiradical activity. Proanthocyanidins can trap reactive oxygen and nitrogen due to its electron- and protonophoric properties, thereby, forming a phenoxyl radical which is more stable than the analogous radicals from monomeric flavonoids. Interaction of the phenoxyl radical with other free radicals results in termination of free radical process.
One of the most studied aspects of the biological activity of proanthocyanidins is their effect on the various portions of the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies conducted in countries where the population traditionally consumed a great deal of red wine, showed significantly reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease despite the diet high in saturated fats. This phenomenon is called «French paradox». The usage of proanthocyanidins and wine that are rich in polyphenols is associated with decreased number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure and increased blood cholesterol levels.
The main mechanisms which are responsible for the protective effect of polyphenol complex of red wine include protection against oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL), inhibition of platelet aggregation and secretion stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide.
The usage of red wine, polyphenol complex of red wine and non-alcohol red wine increased either antioxidant activity of blood plasma after consumption or basal plasma antioxidant activity after regular consumption up to four weeks. Nowadays not everyone drinks alcoholic beverage such as red wine, which is rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, it would be useful to develop the beverage having similar characteristics, or even exceeded, but the beverage that would not contain alcohol. This drink could become universal and it would be consumed by a great deal of the population. Scientists have proven that the regular usage of alcoholic beverages, even as a medicinal aperitif, can result in occuring the adverse processes in the body. When the alcohol enters the bloodstream, it decreases the surfaces of erythrocytes that result in adhesion and occurrence of blood clots, which are constantly increasing with the regular consumption of alcohol drinks.
Such kind of soft drinks can be developed in non-alcoholic beverage industry, namely in the field of functional beverage and beverage for special purposes.
Customers today want to consume not only tasty and fragrant drink, but also useful ones, since our existence in the anti-environmental conditions affects adversely the various aspects of life and body.
The assortment of drinks for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes with the high content of vitamins, micro and macro elements is huge at present Nowadays people do not follow properly their diet, so they need to use such foods that would meet the daily requirement in prebiotics, vitamins and minerals.
The concept of functional foods is known to be the first one formulated in Japan in the early 80s of the last century.
«Functional» foods are beverages, containing natural and organic substances which are enriched with vitamins or trace elements and they possess certain useful (energy, probiotic, etc.) properties. In the Russian Federation the functional beverage market was established in 1990. And now it is more aimed at sports and energy drinks. Now it is formed only in St. Petersburg and Moscow. All drinks for functional and special purposes are divided into four groups: sports, energy, health, and nutraceuticals.
Functional beverages enriched in flavonoids and antioxidants of natural origin based on fruit juices are of my great interest. These drinks have an antioxidant function, as well as the suppression of the body of cardiovascular failure. Bioflavonoids, antioxidants and vitamins of antioxidant action are the essential food ingredients in the composition of beverage. Gerodietary drink for preventive and general purposes which are based on juice made of plant material would appeal to people of all ages. Depending on the percentage of active flavonoids beverage might have the treatment action on the body. A great advantage in using flavonoids as active ingredients is that the substances (of P activity) have no negative effect on the body in cases of overdose. They are easily removed from the body in cases of excess and have no serious consequences.
The base for a drink with the high content of bioflavonoids can be grape juice, predominantly of black sorts such as Isabella, Cabernet Sauvignon, or others of intense black or red colour. Blackcurrant or chokeberry juice which is the rich source of anthocyanins can be added to the base of gerodietary drink. But as everybody does not like currant juice its amount should be taken in a percentage not exceeding 20 %. Vitamin C would be an essential addition for its synergy with the flavonoids increases antioxidant effect up to 13 times. The content of the flavonoid extract blend should be added in an amount which corresponds to the daily needs. But as polyphenols have no negative effect on ingestion at hypervitaminosis their content can be varied closer to the upper limit of the daily requirement. Taking the dose above the daily requirement is not entirely rational, as the body can remove the excess of them, and it is not an economical option. The usage of such drinks in everyday life helps to support the body and stimulate the immune system nowadays. They would help to confront adversity anthropogenes, as well as reduce the teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect.
In view of economical point such drinks are very beneficial as the nature itself supplies us with those natural ingredients.
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