Regional changes in socio-economy and administration in Kokand city (The end of XIX and the beginning of XX centuries)
Мамадалиев Х. И. Regional changes in socio-economy and administration in Kokand city (The end of XIX and the beginning of XX centuries) // Молодой ученый. 2014. №4. С. 752-754.
The territory of the Kokand city, the capital city of Kokand Khanate was 20 square km in the middle of the XIX century. The Katta soy river, the Kichik soy river and the Qorasuv river went through the center of the city and distributed the city with water. The city distinguished with cleanness, wide roads, trees on the sides of the roads and historically originated types of trees. Houses were strong and most of them were built by bricks. In the center of the city there was a castle of the Khan. The city was surrounded by walls and it had 12 gates to enter inside. After Russian conquer on the February 19, 1876 Khan was demolished and the city became the center of the Fergana which was under the rule of the Turkistan General-Gubernator. That year on the 15th of July the Mayor of the city, his senior and junior assistants and secretary and translator was assigned. Not long after, on the 27th of April 1877 the regional capital was moved from Kokand to New Margilan, therefore the Kokand city became the administrative center of Kokand Uyezd from June 1.
Till 1917 the Kokand city was ruled by the head of the Uyezd. 3 representatives, which were elected for 3 years from the respected members of population of the city (2 of them were from Russian) helped to tackle the social problems to the head of the Uyezd. Consequently, the administrative system was changed year by year as population of the city grew and the territory of the city was broaden. The number of the representatives increased to 6 people (4 of them from Russian population) in 1907.
Kokand city was divided into 4 parts and each part was administered by Oksokals (respected person). These parts were divided into neighborhoods and their heads were Ellikboshis. The Head Oksokol managed other Oksokols in places and they helped the Mirshabs (Military people) in gathering tax from population. In general, tax gathering, sending the orders of the administration and other responsibilities were done by the head of the Uyezd.
In 1896 instead of the head Oksokol city police was established. The head of the police was from Russian nation and they had a position of the leader of the city. At the same time they controlled the old part of the city, as that part was the place where the locals lived most.24.1 % of the city benefit was used for keeping the police of the city.
Many building were built especially for Russian administrative in Kokand like other cities of the country. For this reason in 1881 they began to build a new city for the Russian administration bodies and soldiersand parks and gardens of the former Kokand Khans castle were destroyed. They also moved old cemetery to another place of the city and that place was chosen for the new part of the city. The former Kokand Khans castle — Orda became the administrative building of Russian administration and military offices. Later those buildings were destroyed and the western part of the building was changed into military hornizone.
In the short period there were built many houses, administrative buildings, military offices, church, an educational institution and school. At the same time 7 more streets appeared in the city. All governmental offices, administration buildings of Uyezd, banks and main trade buildings were situated in those new streets.
For the population of the “New Part” of the city separate schools, shops and markets were opened. Furthermore telegraph and telephone links, post offices began to work, new libraries and cinemas were built. There was also typography and chemistry was opened. For the Russian population 4 year gymnasium for boys, women’s gymnasium, and private trade school and railway schools began functioning at the city.
According to the social status the populations of the old part of the city were trade makers and partly owners of the big lands. However, in the new part of the city hosted soldiers, shopkeepers and employees of the city municipality. As the result of the opening new railway Andijan-Samarkand, openings of several factories and bringing the railways to Kokand in 1899, the national and social status of the population changed lately.
Together with Russians Jewish, Tatars, Bashkirds, Byelorussians, Ukrainians and other nations moved to Kokand. According to the results of 1904, 94 % Uzbeks, 3,5 % Russians, 0,5 % Jewish and 2 % other nations lived in Kokand.
The territory of the city became bigger and in 1876 there were 6814 houses, in 1916 there were 18400 more houses on comparison. If we add the old part and the new part of the city, in 1880 34 815 people lived in the city, whereas in 1915 120 000 people lived and in 1917 the number reached to 150 000 people.
Eventhough the new capital of Fergana was New Margilan, Kokand stayed as an important city not only in Fergana but in the whole Turkistan this city remained as an economically important city. In trade Kokand was number one city in Fergana. 41,3 % of trade circle was in Kokand. The city was the center of the trade cotton, silk, dry fruit and tea products. Cotton, silk and leather products were brought from different parts of Fergana to Kokand. In 1880 Kokand’s trade relations made more than 30 mln. In a short period Kokand gained the second place in trading in Turkistan.
Many customs buildings, karvansarays and reservations were functioning in Kokand for the trade relations with China. The city played main role in trading tea between Russia and China. More than 10 tea trading companies of Russia functioned in there. Besides that 8 branches of big banks, transportation companies, big firms in trading silk, silk societies, oil companies also had their functions in this city.
Kokand was a transit trade center for Russian products to Iran, India and Afghanistan. Kokand market and other private sectors participated in this function.
In XIX century despite of being main center in trading Kokand remained as a city of traditional handcrafting. In 1876 there were 67 leather manufacturing companies, 232 thread producing companies, 276 silk and 1 brick producing places in the city. In1883 there were 1403 handcrafting places. Handcrafting products not only satisfied local needs, however they were very popular among traders from different countries. Silk products, ceramic products, carpets, jewelry products of the city were appreciated by many exhibitions and they got high prices.
At this time all traditional types of crafts: jewelry making, weaving, blacksmithing and new kinds of handicrafts: clock manufacturing, photography, bindery and sewing developed as well in this city.
Traditional weaving, sericulture and oil producing workshops developed with the introduce of new technologies to this fields. Meanwhile, lots of factories specialized in producing wine, beer, vodka, and also cotton processing, oil and tobacco plants were established by Russian capitalists in this city. With the increase of Russian manufactured goods and new plants some types of crafts went into bankruptcy. For example, 66 tanning businesses run in this city in 1892 decreased to 30 in 1892.After the establishment of new railway between Khoqand and Namangan in 1912, the involvement of Russian capitalists in this city surged. Particularly, the number of cotton processing factories rose and reached to 37 factories in 1914–1915.
In the city there are 360 mosques, 50 madrasahs and 232 schools in this time. At the end of XIX century 36106 children got education in the schools in city. At the beginning of XX century 12 schools of new curriculum and teaching methods were founded by Jaddists and 600 pupils were involved.
In accordance with Russian sources, the medical state of the city was always in a bad condition. At the end of XIX century, the first ambulatory for women and children, later a hospital and 2 chemists were opened in Khoqand. The medical care for local people was limited and it wouldn`t meet the high demand of overpopulated city. It also suffered the lack of budget in the city.
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