This article describes the scientific research on the impact of energy-saving technology on seedling thickness and fertilizer yield in the Lower Amudarya region.
Keywords: Amudarya, vegetables, technology, fertilizer, yield, biological properties.
Biological properties of vegetable crops, cultivation techniques, cold and heat resistance, root system development, water and nutrient requirements. The amount and structure of the product depends on the nutrients, the amount of nutrients absorbed by the plant. The nutrient requirements of vegetable crops, the relationship to the concentration of fertilizers, the effect of soil solution concentration on the plant. Vegetable Fertilizer System: Basic Fertilization, Nest Fertilization and Feeding, Fertilizer Standards, Timing and Methods of Fertilization. Standards, timing and methods of application of local fertilizers. Combine application of mineral and local fertilizers, preparation of mixtures from them. Determining the amount of fertilizers for the planned harvest, the distribution of fertilizers by soil properties and their adjustment according to the agrochemical chart, the norms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers for soil type and other Adjustment on indicators, fertilizer norm after perennial weeds. Impact of vegetable fertilizers on crop quality and cost-effectiveness.
Vegetable crops are more demanding on soil fertility, temperature, moisture content and nutrition than other field crops. The root system of vegetable crops is mainly located in the topsoil. Given the weak development of their root system, it is recommended to sow these crops in fertile soils with a humus content of 1.5–2 %, phosphorus and potassium per 1 kg of soil at 20–30 and 250–300 mg. Vegetable crops are very sensitive to nutrient solutions and can be divided into 2 groups depending on their requirements for the concentration of the soil solution:
1) highly resistant — these are beets, tomatoes, cabbage;
2) less resistant: carrots, onions, cucumbers.
All vegetable crops absorb a lot of nutrients and so2 from the soil due to the production of a lot of dry matter.
Therefore, depending on the absorption of nutrients, vegetable crops are divided into the following 4 groups:
- High-yielding crops — mid and late cabbage;
- Medium — tomatoes, cucumbers, onions;
- Kam — beets, carrots;
- Very little — turnips.
Different vegetable crops absorb nutrients from the soil in different ways. This depends on the length of the growing season, the structure of the root system and other biological characteristics. For example, cabbage absorbs nutrients quickly, while onions, carrots, and beets, on the other hand, absorb them very slowly, with tomatoes in between. Vegetable crops also vary in the nutrient content of the soil. M: Cabbage needs nitrogen in the first place, early vegetable crops need a lot of phosphorus, and long-term winter crops need phosphorus and potassium.
Many vegetable crops prefer an environment in which the soil solution is weakly acidic or close to neutral. Vegetable crops are very demanding on the amount of mobile aluminum in the soil, the amount of which should not be less than 3–4 mg per 100 g, for some crops (onion, garlic) should not exceed 1 mg. In agriculture, local fertilizers are primarily used for vegetable rotation. Up to 20–60 tons of manure per hectare is used for vegetable crops in different soils. Vegetable crops that are sensitive to the reaction of the soil solution: carrots, onions, cucumbers are very demanding to organic fertilizers. However, it is not recommended to use fresh or rotten manure for these crops, as the manure will cause the roots to sprout and spoil its quality. That is why 30–40 tons of rotten manure per hectare is needed for onions. I have to give. In contrast to cucumbers, it is recommended to give 60 t / ha of fresh manure. Manure is less effective for early cabbage because the growing season is shorter. For vegetable crops, semi-rotten manure should be given if the growing season is long, and well-rotted manure should be given for the next day, or they should be sown for the next effect of manure.
From the above, it is clear that organic fertilizers should be applied in the field of vegetable rotation, first for cucumbers, then for onions and cabbage (evening and middle). In light sandy soils, it is recommended to apply manure in spring, and in heavy soils in autumn before plowing. Experiments have shown that for every 1 ton of fertilizer applied to the ground, the yield of tomatoes increases by 170–180 kg, cabbage by 150–160 kg, potatoes by 85–90 kg and melons by 180–190 kg. Once the local sources of fertilizer have been identified on the farm, a manure rotation plan is developed, which outlines the sequence of application of organic fertilizers across the fields. In the fourth year after the landslide, it is planned to use 50–60 tons of manure per hectare for potatoes, 70–75 tons for vegetables and 80–90 tons per hectare for melons.
Areas not included in the manure exchange system should be regularly fertilized with at least 20–25 tons of organic fertilizer per hectare per year. Rotten, semi-dry, and sifted manure is used to fertilize plants during the growing season. For every 1 kg of ammonium nitrate, 2–2.5 kg of sifted dry manure is mixed or 1 ton of ammophos is mixed with 1.5–2 tons of manure. Before plowing, the soil is usually fertilized with organic fertilizers collected during the summer and autumn. Manure collected in the winter and spring and decomposed is used to feed crops in the summer. When farms have sheep manure and poultry manure during the summer feeding season, they are used to feed crops with mineral fertilizers. This, in turn, will play an important role in increasing yields and improving the quality of vegetable crops.
For different vegetable crops, there is a lack of any nutrients in the soil. Depending on the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers, vegetable crops can be arranged as follows: beets, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers and onions. Experiments in different soil and climatic conditions have shown that additional yield of vegetable crops can be obtained when each element is given at 60–90 kg / ha. In order to ensure good nutrition of vegetable and melon crops during the growing season, ie to meet the nutrient needs of the plant from a young age, the annual norm of fertilizers should be set close to the young seedlings, and the main part to plant nutrients. should be added when the demand for the substance increases. Most of the mineral fertilizers should be applied at a depth of 25–30 cm during the main tillage. Vegetable crops usually start using fertilizers that are first applied to the soil to a depth of 25–30 cm, ie 20–30 days after germination in the field. Depending on the biological characteristics of vegetable crops, methods of planting and transplanting, as well as soil properties, it is recommended to apply fertilizers in a timely manner.
Onion. To evenly meet the nutrient requirements of this crop, fertilizers are applied in 2 periods: 75 % phosphorus fertilizers and potassium all before the main tillage, and the rest of the phosphorus during the preparation of the soil for planting. N fertilizers are applied in 2 periods: when the plant produces 1–2 leaves and onion heads start to form.
Carrots. Phosphorus 70–75 % potassium is added before all the main work, the rest of the phosphorus is added before planting. All N fertilizers are applied during the growing season when the first feeding takes 2–3 leaves and the roots begin to form.
Bodring. Cucumber is a very nutritious vegetable crop, which can be explained by the following:
First, the growing season is much shorter, 40–75 days in different varieties;
Second, unlike other vegetable crops, fertilizers absorb very little of the nutrients;
The highest yields in vegetable rotation are due to the combined use of mineral and organic fertilizers. First of all, it is necessary to apply additional nitrogen fertilizers to the manure. Excessive tillage in vegetable growing increases the decomposition of humus humus reserves in the soil, which in turn leads to a sharp increase in soil fertility in the first year of land use and a decrease in subsequent years. The yield of fertilizers used in crop rotation is 50–55 % for each crop. In addition, fertilizers applied to crops have a positive effect on product quality: they improve the taste, increase the amount of vitamins, carbohydrates, dry matter, etc. The soil conditions in Uzbekistan are extremely diverse and require the use of fertilizers in a stratified manner. Fertilization system is based only on the norms, timing and methods of mineral and local fertilizers, their biological characteristics of the plant, the planned yield, soil and climatic conditions, the type of crops grown in the previous year, the amount of fertilizer given to them. Depending on the amount of fertilizers should include not only the plan for the use of fertilizers, but also organizational measures (storage of fertilizers, mechanization of their application) that will allow the effective implementation of the developed system.
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