This article provides scientific and practical recommendations for the psychologically and medically correct diagnosis of mentally retarded children. It also details the problems of early diagnosis.
Keywords: mentally retarded children, psychology, methodology, practical process, diagnosis, problem.
The causes of mental retardation in mentally retarded children can be social and biological, and children with mental retardation are similar, for example, children with mental retardation may have different appearances, tricks, special psychology, potopsychology, psychology of oligophrenics. By mental retardation we mean that children with cognitive impairment from psychological processes are characterized by an imbalance of analysis and synthesis in thinking, dominance of the process of forgetfulness (amnesia) in memory, increased dominance of attentional features, manifesting a certain deficiency in children. However, they are not mentally ill (individuals), but in the organization of work with children with certain disabilities:
a) The opinion of the medical staff should be relied upon.
b) rely on the opinion of their parents.
Special attention is paid to the development of children with mental disabilities by identifying and diagnosing the process in which they are deficient. The process of mental development of mentally retarded children is studied not by psychology, but by oligophrenopedagogy.
Differentiation of mentally retarded children from their normal peers according to their mental processes We can now find children with mental retardation in schools. These children have difficulty learning school subjects. But it is important to differentiate between mentally retarded children and mentally retarded children and their peers. We can see the following differences between mentally retarded children and mentally retarded children. In mentally retarded children, speech and movement disorders can be seen throughout development. In children with mental retardation, speech and movement disorders are eliminated in kindergarten. Mentally retarded children are able to draw independently and take the initiative in listening to fairy tales. The dynamics of the movement are getting better and better. For example, it is not difficult to assemble the whole of the pictures divided into sections. Such children understand the content of proverbs, anecdotes and assignments. But their understanding of their peers is clear. They often understand their situation and correct it independently or with the help of adults. Children with mental retardation have a slightly lower level of logical thinking perception than their peers. The reason for such a delay in mental development may be due to the occurrence of various toxicosis events during pregnancy of the mother, as well as eating disorders. The mother may have a variety of diseases such as hepatitis, diarrhea, influenza, or asphyxia during childbirth. These reasons cause children to lag behind in mental development.
In the behavior of such children, we can see infantility, that is, the characteristics that are characteristic of children younger than themselves. When they come to school, they don't do well in school, they don't understand school assignments well, and they are not ready to study. They have no interest in school and do not understand that the task must be completed. They have difficulty mastering basic reading and writing skills. When education is properly organized, children's mental infertility can be gradually eradicated. When we compare such children as medical educators and psychologists, we can see that their mental development is slowing down, which leads to a situation similar to oligophrenia. These types of children need to be identified in a timely manner and not transferred from one superficial class to another. Otherwise, they will not be able to master the curriculum on time and will become underachieving students in secondary schools. Special arrangements should be made to work with students with intellectual disabilities. Children in this group will be provided with general strengthening treatment, a relaxed regimen, and individual behavioral interventions in the learning process.
The identity of mentally retarded children is one of the least studied issues in oligophrenopsychology. Well-known psychologist S. L. Rubenstein explains his idea. «Any external influences directly affect a person through the internal conditions of the body. The main physiological part of this internal condition is the characteristics of the nervous system. Due to the superficiality of the concepts of mentally retarded children in primary school, personal qualities are formed accordingly. Mentally retarded children learn the concepts of morality from their parents and teachers from books, but they have difficulty or misapply this knowledge. As a result, mentally retarded children are often exposed to anti-social stupid influences. In some countries, the education of mentally retarded children is not mandatory. In some countries, only children from low-income families are enrolled in special education. Under such conditions, mentally retarded children are left out of labor training, which can lead to various unpleasant consequences. In these places, criminal elements exploit the shortcomings of mentally retarded children and use them for their own ends. Ch. Dikens and B. Braxit provide extensive information about such incidents. A number of media reports indicate that mentally retarded children are involved in criminal activities. A number of experts have come to the wrong conclusion from such data. Mentally retarded children are thought to be morally defective. This is definitely a misconception. No brain can create the basis for the emergence of harmful anti-social, anti-moral tendencies. The disease is not the basis of such nations, but the environment in which the child lives. The evolving atmosphere is the cause. In our country, general education also applies to people with various disabilities. As a result, many mentally retarded children have found their place in life. According to psychologist TI Goldovskaya, in one of the districts surveyed, the lives of mentally retarded children who were sent to school 20 years ago after graduation were examined. It turned out that all the mentally retarded children in the secondary school were employed, well-off and living a normal life.
With the right education in secondary schools, mentally retarded children have adapted to life. Developing the right personality. According to LS Vygotsky, it does not have to appear as a secondary defect. Not always visible. This, of course, requires relentless, skilled labor. Teachers and educators in secondary schools need to be aware of the reasons that negatively affect the personality of a mentally retarded child. One of the most difficult tasks is to instill positive attitudes in secondary school students. L. Y. Bojovich described in detail the features of the formation of personal qualities in normal children. One of the founders of oligophrenopedagogy, E. Segen, noted that the «lack of desire» in mentally retarded children causes a number of difficulties in the formation of personality. L. V. Zanyuv also goes into detail about a number of shortcomings in the personality of mentally retarded children. Disharmony in the personality of mentally retarded children, disproportion is one of the leading shortcomings in the development of their personality. A person is a socio-historical category. Its social nature and social function determine the classification of an individual. It is a source of study of the social sciences: history, philosophy, sociology, ethics, aesthetics, psychology, pedagogy. A person is a representative of social development, a conscious individual, who holds an administrative position in society and carries out information.
The general tasks of education in auxiliary schools are carried out together with the task of correcting the shortcomings of special mentally retarded students. Therefore, one of the main, necessary features of education in auxiliary schools is that it is aimed at correcting the defect, and the second feature is that it is implemented in the development of the child. Due to the lack of brain activity, the development of mentally retarded students is limited and lagging behind. A mentally retarded child is not underdeveloped, but unusually developed and developing. Its development is flawed. The cognitive activity and independence of the mentally retarded student is somewhat low. This deficiency manifests itself when they face the difficulties of life directly.
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