This article provides a theoretical basis for the importance of family education in the formation of auxiliary students, ie mentally retarded children, as individuals, in their finding a place in society, in their adaptation to social life.
Keywords: mentally retarded child, education, pedagogy, family, personality, methodology, social life.
The problems of a family with a child with a disability are reflected in various spheres of his life. In the history of human development, the relationship between such a family and society has been characterized by different levels of social attention to the family and its needs. There are different stages in this relationship. In the field of correctional pedagogy, parents should know the basic laws and features of upbringing and education of children with developmental disabilities, get acquainted with the content and methods of education, children's activities aimed at shaping the child's relationships with others and socially valuable behaviors. it is important that they master the forms and methods of organizing communication.
The democratization of the education system, innovative programs, the need to address the problem of interaction of special institutions with the family, the need to explore ways to improve the pedagogical culture of parents raising children with developmental disabilities. Researchers and practitioners have identified the following contradictions:
– Lack of knowledge about the rights and responsibilities of parents and their use;
– parents' educational needs and inability to meet them;
– low level of pedagogical culture in parents and lack of knowledge of the basics of psychology in the upbringing of children and the inadequacy of the education system in special institutions.
The strengthening and development of communication and cooperation between different social institutions (school, family, community) leads to an improvement in the lifestyle and upbringing of children with developmental disabilities. Currently, family and school interactions are based on the following principles:
1) parents and teachers are partners in the upbringing and education of the child;
2) the consensus of educators and parents in the upbringing and education of children;
3) respect, support and trust in the child by educators and parents;
4) educators and parents to know and make the most of the opportunities of the family and school in the upbringing and education of children with developmental disabilities;
5) Constant analysis of the process of interaction between family and school, its intermediate and final results.
The interrelationship of community and family upbringing, as well as the mutual responsibility of educators, parents and the community, is reflected in a number of normative and legal acts. For example, the Education Act states that parents are the first educators. They must lay the foundation for the physical, moral, and intellectual development of their children. As a result, the school's position in working with the family will change. Each school not only provides parenting, but also provides parenting advice to parents. In this regard, the educational institution should identify the conditions for working with parents, enrich its content, improve the forms and methods of cooperation in the upbringing and education of children with disabilities in school and family. Defectologists are not only educators of children, but also partners in their upbringing.
On the need for strong cooperation between school and family: «Without parenting, without the participation of parents in school life, without the constant spiritual communication of adults and children, the family can not be the first cell of society, and the school will not be an educational mask. the spiritual development of society will come to a halt. ” “Working with parents is a very important and urgent issue. It is necessary to work on the level of knowledge of parents, to help them improve their knowledge, to equip them with the known pedagogical knowledge. " The leading and organizing role of the school in relation to the family raising a child with a developmental disability is determined by a number of factors:
– active dissemination of pedagogical knowledge among parents in accordance with the plan;
– Assistance to the family in raising children;
– to promote the positive experience of upbringing in society and in the family;
– Involvement of parents in pedagogical activities;
– Enhancing the acquisition of pedagogical knowledge by parents;
V. A. Sukhomlinsky showed that pedagogy should be a science for everyone, that is, for teachers and parents. No successful educational work is possible without pedagogical education, without a system of raising the pedagogical culture of parents, because pedagogical culture is an important part of the overall culture. The pedagogical culture of parents means the development of the personality as a child educator, the readiness to raise children, which are reflected in the process of raising children in the family and society. A key component of the pedagogical culture of parents is a certain amount of psychological-pedagogical, physiological-hygienic and legal knowledge, as well as the skills and abilities acquired in the process of raising a child with developmental disabilities, their pedagogical training. In this case, the attitude of parents to the upbringing is important. A responsible approach to parenting, the desire to raise their children as well as possible, is an integral part of the pedagogical culture of parents. In the field of correctional pedagogy, parents should know the basic laws and features of upbringing and education of children with developmental disabilities, get acquainted with the content and methods of education, children's activities aimed at shaping the child's relationships with others and socially valuable behaviors. It is important to develop forms and methods of communication. In the upbringing of pedagogical culture, the basic requirements of society to the personality of parents, ideological, moral relations governing family relations, interpersonal relations in the family are considered together with the socio-pedagogical conditions. In this regard, work with parents is based on the following principles of cooperation. Signs of cooperation include:
– each participant in the process understands the purpose of the activity;
– clear division of labor and cooperation between the participants;
– personal contacts, mutual assistance in the exchange of information between the participants of the process;
– Positive interpersonal relationships.
It should be noted that in recent years, parents have become more active and have become active participants in the upbringing of children. «The school should not replace parents, not separate them from their parents, but connect them to each other and create conditions for communication and interaction». Working with parents is a complex and important part of the work of a defectologist, which includes improving the pedagogical knowledge, skills and abilities of parents, helping parents in family upbringing, the appropriate conditions for the upbringing of children creation, involves the interaction of parents and educators, educators in the upbringing of the child.
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