The article describes the difficulties in organizing the work of a psychologist working with children with intellectual disabilities. The article provides some recommendations on effective labor education for this contingent of students.
Keywords: students with intellectual disabilities, psychologist, personality, activity organization, skills, specific tasks.
Organization of work on mental development and correction of children with intellectual disabilities to increase children's cognitive activity, the formation of general intellectual abilities and skills, physical development and health, self-esteem, aimed at self-correction. The formation of awareness, emotional stability, and self-regulation allows for a certain degree of developmental delay. Specific characteristics of children with intellectual disabilities The need for the organization of psychological and pedagogical assistance based on the principles of complexity and individual approach, a multidisciplinary group of professionals who are well versed in modern correction and cognitive development technologies and can help children with intellectual disabilities known to exist.
The most important task of society today is to maintain and strengthen the mental health of the child, to increase his ability to adapt to life. The growing number of children with intellectual disabilities requires the attention of health professionals, psychologists and teachers to address an important issue — their social and biological adaptation. An important element is to effectively organize the work of the teacher-psychologist with mentally retarded children to ensure the balance of the child's mind with the world around him, to perform social functions and ensure successful adaptation. The problems of correction, compensation for mental retardation, as well as the socialization of a mentally retarded child are related to the prevalence of this defect. One of the principles of the federal state standard for mentally retarded children is to create a favorable social environment for each child to develop and receive education in accordance with their age and individual characteristics, special educational needs.
About children with intellectual disabilities, L. M. According to Shipitsin, it is the level of cognitive activity of a growing person and in all its manifestations: knowledge, cognitive processes, abilities; it is realized as a result of the influence of living conditions and social environment on the child.
The success and effectiveness of mental development in the education of mentally retarded children is also determined by the fact that it is organized systematically according to the plan of the teacher-psychologist and is based on didactic principles that regulate the learning process. Among other means of mental education, the leading position of teaching is determined by the following conditions: software, all children with intellectual disabilities, the leading role of education, which systematically covers the methods appropriate to the age of children, teacher-psychologist.
At the preschool age, mentally retarded children are unable to meet the kindergarten program requirements and reach the required level of school readiness when they enter school. In this category of children, in addition to the impairment of various mental functions, the practical use of the speech system and speech elements occurs to one degree or another, which in turn limits the ability to transition to speech acquisition. Has difficulty understanding high-level and complex language patterns. Most children with intellectual disabilities have impaired or underdeveloped fine motor skills, general motor skills, and visual-motor coordination. Hand movements can be awkward, inconsistent. When working with this category of children, psychologists constantly strive to use new, most effective methods and technologies to correct children’s development and prepare them for school.
Let's look at the goals of a teacher-psychologist in organizing work with children with intellectual disabilities. The goals of the psychologist in education are as follows:
– creating conditions to ensure the mental and personal development of children with intellectual disabilities in the process of upbringing, education and socialization;
– to promote the creation of a social state of development appropriate to the individuality of children and to provide psychological conditions for the protection of the psychological and mental health of children, their parents, teachers and other participants in the educational process.
In organizing work with children with intellectual disabilities, the work of the teacher-psychologist is aimed at ensuring the maximum level of physical, mental and moral development of each child. Organize educational work aimed at correcting, compensating and preventing secondary deviations in the development of children and their preparation for school, taking into account the individual capabilities of each child. The system of working with children with intellectual disabilities of a psychologist is aimed at organizing a corrective-pedagogical process with the same requirements for the child in order to timely correct speech, emotional, motor disorders, prevent school failure, prevent social disorders in education. The whole system of working with children with intellectual disabilities of a teacher-psychologist consists of the following stages.
- Diagnostic stage. At this stage, to organize a comprehensive medical, psychological and pedagogical study of a child with intellectual disabilities
- Correction and development phase. The purpose of this phase is to develop compensatory mechanisms for the formation of child activity, to eliminate and prevent secondary deviations.
- Health care phase. Here the functions of the child's developing organism are improved.
- The stage of upbringing and education. Formation of the moral basis of the individual, the development of socially acceptable behavior in society, guiding and cognitive activity, strengthening the relationship between the main components of mental activity.
- Socio-pedagogical stage. Content: solving organizational problems, informing parents about the interaction of the teacher-psychologist with other organizations and social services.
In the process of preparing the article in accordance with the purpose, the following basic rules on this issue were revealed. Corrective education by a psychologist is not an adjunct to general developmental work with mentally retarded children. This serves as a condition for overcoming or mitigating some of the difficulties arising from a biological disease, but it is also the basis for shaping the personality of a child with a developmental disability.
The developmental tendencies of mentally retarded children are similar to those of developing children as usual. Some disorders — delays in mastering object-related movements, delays and deviations in the development of speech and cognitive processes — are mainly secondary.
- Гаврилушкина О. П., Соколова Н. Д. Воспитание и обучение умственно отсталых дошкольников: Кн. для воспитателя. — М., 2005. — 72 с
- Кулагина И. Ю. Возрастная психология (Развитие ребенка от рождения до 17 лет): учебное пособие. М.: Изд-во РОУ, 2006. 180с.
- Рубцов В. В. Ключевая роль в обновленной системе образования //Школьный психолог. — № 1. — 2010г.
- Шипицына Л. М. Развитие навыков общения у детей с тяжелой и умеренной умственной отсталостью. Спб, «Союз», 2014.