The article presents modern opportunities for teaching biology, which are able to optimize the joint activities of the teacher and students, the active involvement of the latter in educational activities, which means a simpler, but at the same time, high-quality accumulation of those knowledge, skills and abilities.
Keywords: active and interactive teaching methods, problem lecture, educational discussion.
В статье представлены современные возможности преподавании биологии, которые способны оптимизировать совместную деятельность педагога и учащихся, активное включение последних в учебную деятельность, а значит, более простое, но при этом качественное накопление ими тех знаний, умений и навыков.
Ключевые слова: активные и интерактивные методы обучения, проблемная лекция, учебная дискуссия.
The pedagogical process involves training that ensures the maximum development of the intellectual, emotional and volitional spheres of the individual, the formation of cognitive interests and abilities, the creative activity of the future specialist.
Skillful application of methods and techniques of active and interactive forms of conducting classes allows to form the cognitive interest of students in order to achieve certain educational goals and fulfill educational tasks.
Chinese wisdom says: «Tell me and I will forget. Show me and I will remember. Let me do it and it will be mine forever. " This wisdom capaciously reflects the meaning of learning based on the methods of practice-oriented learning, which is based on active methods and forms of learning.
Active teaching methods are methods characterized by a high degree of involvement of students in the educational process, activating their cognitive and creative activity in solving the assigned tasks.
Signs of active teaching methods
– Activation of thinking, and the student is forced to be active;
– Long time of activity — the student does not work sporadically, but throughout the entire educational process;
– Independence in the development and search for solutions to the assigned tasks;
– Motivation to learn.
Distinctive features are:
– Purposeful activation of thinking, when the student is forced to be active regardless of his desire;
Classification of active teaching methods
The most general classification in pedagogy divides active methods into the following groups: individual and group, imitative and non-imitative
Active methods (classification by A. M. Smolkin)
A problem lecture is an informational monologue with questions that create problem situations and direct the attention of students to the need to solve minute problems. For example, at a lecture on the topic «Cell nucleus. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes «the following questions can be used:
– Why is the nucleus the most important component of the cell?
– Is it possible for a cell to exist without a nucleus?
– What features of the structure of the nuclear envelope allow ribosomes formed in the nucleolus to enter the cytoplasm?
– The average length of the DNA molecule that makes up each of the 46 human chromosomes is about 5 cm. How does all the genetic material fit in the cell nucleus?
Lectures with pre-planned errors are aimed at developing students' skills to identify incorrect information. The teacher prepares a summary of a meaningful nature with a certain number of errors. The task of the students is to act as experts, during the lesson, mark the mistakes noticed in the notes and name them at the end of the lesson.
For example, on the topic «Individual development of the organism» the following summary can be used:
- At the stage of cleavage, multiple cell division occurs by meiosis.
- The period of crushing ends with the formation of the gastrula.
- The formation of germ layers occurs at the stage of blastula.
- A three-layer embryo is formed as a result of differentiation.
- The formation of tissues and organs occurs at the neurula stage.
Educational discussion — a method of discussing and resolving controversial issues or problems. It is held when all students have complete information on the topic of discussion. A controversial situation is created when the teacher asks the question «Who has a different opinion?" Among the students, supporters and opponents of the statement proposed by the teacher immediately appear. The purpose of the educational discussion is the development of critical thinking, the formation of a communicative and discussion culture.
Forms of discussion include:
– Round table — a conversation in which «on equal terms» there is an exchange of views between a small group of students;
– Brainstorming is a method of searching for as many original ideas as possible, which are recorded in the «bank of ideas», and then analyzed and discussed;
Lesson — a press conference is aimed at identifying the range of interests and needs of students, attitudes towards the topic of the lesson and the subject as a whole. The teacher names the topic of the lesson and asks the students to ask him questions about the topic in writing.
For example, a lesson — a press conference on the topic: «The views of the scientists K. Linnaeus, J.-B. Lamarck and Charles Darwin on the evolution of living nature and the processes of speciation.
Research method — a method in which, after analyzing the material, posing problems and brief instructions, students independently study the literature, conduct observations and measurements, and perform search actions. Initiative, independence, creative search are most fully manifested in research activities. Methods of educational work develop into methods of scientific research.
Role-play — at the least cost and time, students acquire the necessary competencies, act in full accordance with reality. Role play immerses the student in a model close to the life situation.
For example, environmental games can be used in which students act as environmentalists and directors of environmental concerns. Or the generalizing game «Appointment to the doctor», where you can recall the main symptoms of diseases of organs of various systems and measures to prevent diseases, while the class is divided into specialist doctors, patients and experts.
All these methods were effective for achieving various goals: increasing the interest of students in the subject and educational activities, expanding their horizons and intellectual development, forming independence and implementing an activity-based approach to the educational process, increasing the effectiveness of learning.
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