Psychological foundations of managerial decision-making | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Психология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №3 (345) январь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 10.01.2021

Статья просмотрена: 12 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Назаров, А. С. Psychological foundations of managerial decision-making / А. С. Назаров. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 3 (345). — С. 46-48. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/345/77488/ (дата обращения: 25.02.2021).



This article describes the psychological features of management decision-making, as well as psychological recommendations to improve the efficiency of management decision-making based on the results of experimental work.

Keywords: personality, staff, manager, individual personality traits, making decisions, conscious choice, determinism, indeterminism.

В настоящей статье раскрываются психологические особенности принятия управленческих решений, а также представлены психологические рекомендации по повышению эффективности процесса принятия управленческих решений, основанных на результатах проводимых экспериментальных работ.

Ключевые слова: личность, персонал, менеджер, индивидуальный особенности личности, принятие решений, управленческие решения, осознанный выбор, детерминизм, индетерминизм.

Characteristic for making a decision are: the activity of the subject and his awareness to a certain extent of his own activity. The specifics of human management will be a constant struggle or conflict of motives. It is his resolution, or leveling, that is reflected in the leader's behavior as a choice of alternatives.

At the same time, the potential of leadership abilities, motivational profile, and the ability to take risks are revealed. The leader's behavior expresses his mental organization and life experience. It is mediated by social attitudes, norms and traditions, prevailing relations in society, which largely determines the content and style of decisions. Particularly significant is the weight of managerial activity in stressful social and psychological situations. Situations of this kind encourage quick decision-making when information and time are scarce. If the system is working properly, then decision-making is implemented and the manager exercises only control functions. But there are situations that involve a quick change in decision-making schemes, a search for little-known alternatives. In these situations, the status instructs the manager to intervene. Thus, management is accompanied by high search activity even before the need arises to carry out special professional activities for decision-making.

Even if none of the alternatives for the development of events fully satisfies the leader, he must make a decision, that is, to carry out a «volitional act», choosing one of the options, relying on his professionalism, intellect, intuition. “The choice is made when it is impossible to reduce the preference of at least two of the existing behavioral alternatives to a single criterion. If preference can be revealed by a person directly, then it is permissible to talk about the typical task of finding the right solution, and not making a decision in which the human intellect plays a major role.

The choice, which is the basis of the management decision, cannot be made solely on the basis of intellectual analysis. It is necessary to take into account the values of the leader and subordinates, who will be affected by the decision, the interaction of mind and will, which does not exclude the adoption of unpredictable decisions. Given that the leader is constantly in a situation of conflict of motives and choices, he will act as a stress-resistant person, capable of solving even in conditions of psychological stress. The manager's assessment and choice of behavioral opportunities are closely related to social attitudes, relationships and role expectations of the subjects of managerial relations.

Some managers can make the right decisions quickly and clearly, while others periodically experience difficulties in critical difficult situations. This is due not only to the presence or absence of some knowledge, skills and abilities, but also to the personal characteristics of the leaders. The following psychological mechanisms are especially influenced by the adoption of managerial decisions, table 1.

Table 1

Psychological mechanisms influencing decision making

Index

Characteristic

Features of thinking

Creativity, logic, speed of thinking, spatial thinking, etc.

Motivation

Degree of interest in making certain decisions

Personality traits

Anxiety, self-esteem, etc.

Business qualities

Responsibility, perseverance, independence, sociability, etc.

Values and attitudes

They lie at the heart of priorities, and a predisposition to specific actions.

Ethical principles

Fairness, honesty, attention to people, etc.

The role of the human factor is manifested in two aspects: the influence of personal characteristics on the process of developing a management decision and personal assessments of an already existing solution.

Personal characteristics include: will, suggestibility, emotionality, temperament, professionalism, experience, responsibility, health, attention characteristics, parameters of thinking, etc. In turn, each person is characterized by the following basic parameters of thinking: depth, breadth, speed and flexibility. Depth characterizes the analytical nature of a person's thinking, his search for cause-and-effect relationships within the analyzed situation. At the same time, a person can abstract from the surrounding elements. Latitude reflects the synthetic nature of thinking, in which a person is able to assess the role of the analyzed situation in the general scenario of activity. The speed is determined by the time it takes to complete the assignment relative to the average level adopted in the given company. An employee can understand a situation or come up with an effective solution faster than others. Flexibility provides a timely and reasonable transition to new methods of developing and implementing a management decision.

According to E. A. Smirnov, such qualities of a leader as practicality, optimism and pessimism have a great influence on the development of management decisions. The practicality of a manager or a specialist is associated with extensive work experience and the development of stereotyped approaches to the development of management decisions. The optimism of a manager is based on an overestimated estimate of the capabilities of personnel, including their own, the company itself and the clients cooperating with it. In any economic, financial, organizational calculations and estimates, there is always a fork (range) of acceptable input data and possible results, i.e. the employee is given the right (delegated authority) to choose the best option in a given range and be responsible for this decision.

Optimism must be supported by high professionalism in management and the technological capabilities of the company. Optimistic leaders are good for the company. They increase the risks of implementing a managerial decision, both positively and negatively. They selflessly take on risky but rewarding work for the company and often bring seemingly hopeless projects to a positive result. The head of the company must determine the measure of optimism or the ratio of such leaders among others.

The manager's pessimism is based on an underestimated estimate of the capabilities of staff, including their own, the company itself and the clients cooperating with it. The manager believes that the understated option will be implemented without fail, which will bring the company a stable, but small income. This approach can be effective in traditional, little-changing industries. For the head of the company, pessimists are also needed for making informed decisions and balancing approaches to management decisions.

Considering the phenomena of the influence of a manager's personal qualities on the process of developing a managerial decision, one should take into account the varying degrees of stability of individual personal qualities. The unchangeable ones include: temperament, genetically determined reactions and the type of higher nervous activity; to slightly changeable? suggestibility, level of emotionality, nature of attention, propensity to take risks and parameters of thinking; to highly variable? will, responsibility, sociability. There is a successful leader model that provides the maximum opportunity for successful development and implementation of management decisions. This set includes: sociability, decisiveness, professionalism, openness, curiosity, result orientation, self-confidence and thirteen other characteristics.

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