The etymology concept in linguistics | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №51 (341) декабрь 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 19.12.2020

Статья просмотрена: 48 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Жумакулова, Ш. К. The etymology concept in linguistics / Ш. К. Жумакулова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 51 (341). — С. 56-57. — URL: (дата обращения: 08.12.2021).

This article discusses the etymology of linguistics. Along with the department of etymology, special attention is paid to the concept of etymology, the history of the origin of words, their original meaning and significance.

Keywords: etymology, etymon, etymological analysis, diachronic, synchronous.

In linguistics etymology is the study of the origin of a word and is based on the laws of historical changes in word structure and its meanings, sound changes, and morphological changes in words.

Etymology is one of the oldest branches of linguistics and deals with the history of the origin of words, as well as the meanings of words learned from artificial, compound and foreign languages. Etymology takes into account both aspects of a word, its form and meaning. Etymology is the study of the origin of words. The word is a combination of the Greek etymology, etymon — «truth» and logos — «word». [3]

According to encyclopedic dictionaries, etymology originated in ancient Greece in Plato's Cratilus, where the term «etymology» was coined in connection with the Stoics. [2]

According to Karpenko, V. A. Zvegintsev defined the history of the science of etymology, returning to Plato's Cratilus, arguing that the «natural» or conditional nature of words and the dispute over their observance were primarily true, i.e. the point of view that reflects the essence of what they mean, the Stoics put forward a new task before the ancient linguistics — the discovery of the true essence or nature of words. Thus, etymology implied that a new linguistic discipline, or the science of the true meaning of a word, was encouraged for its birth. [4]

Etymology is a very ancient branch of linguistics, and BC philosophers and philologists also studied the early history of the origin of words. The term «etymology» is probably associated with the names of the ancient Roman scholars Chrysippus and Varron. The true and original meanings and forms of words are determined by comparing them with words in other languages ​​and dialects that have the same root as the history of the language. [1] It explores the previous meanings and forms of words.

According to I. A. Buduen de Courtenay, etymology is defined as a science that deals with historical relations in terms of the structure of words and their essential parts. The scholar argues that the application of the concept of chronological sequence to individual parts of the grammar of any language should take into account the history of the language when comparing the state of a single material in different periods.

O. N. Trubachev explains that the etymology of almost every word is related to comparative grammar, and that this relationship is almost always complex and multifaceted, as etymology is a set of actions based on a set of data derived from comparative grammar. The etymology is provided by comparative grammar, and it can still add clarity and add much. Each etymology works with comparative phonetics, morphology, and word formation facts.

A. S. Karimov calls etymology the «biography» of words, the study of the history of their origin. [5] The true and original meanings and forms of words are determined by comparing them with words in other languages ​​and dialects that have the same root. In this case, the previous meanings and forms of words are studied in depth.

The term «etymology» is used in linguistics in two senses: lexicology, the study of the history of the origin of words in a particular language, and the first meaning and form of the word.

It is easy to identify the origin of new words, but it is much harder to know when an old word appeared and from which language or dialect it was derived. In determining the origin of a word, the word is compared with the sound structure and meaning of words in related languages.

The subject of etymology as a branch of linguistics is the study of the sources and processes of formation of the vocabulary of a language, including the earliest stages of its existence. [2] Over time, the words of a language change according to certain historical patterns, which obscures the original form of the word. The etymologist must create this form, relying on the materials of the relevant languages, and explain how the word came to be in the modern form.

Historical changes in words often distort the original form and meaning of the word, and the character of the word undermines the underlying motivation, that is, it determines the difficulty of reconstructing the relationship between the original form and the meaning of the word.

The purpose of the etymological analysis of a word is to determine when, in what language, on the basis of which word formation model, on the basis of which linguistic material, in what form and in what sense the word appeared, as well as on its initial form and meaning determines what historical changes have defined the present form and meaning. Reconstruction of the original form and meaning of the word is actually the subject of etymological analysis.

Etymological analysis allows the speaker to restore the meaning of a word that was previously unknown to him, reveals its origin, allows to restore the origin of words in a foreign language. History from any moment of life helps maintain the account. The history of language as a scientific history is the study of the history of social thought without a general basis for the history of discipline, material and spiritual culture, and, above all, the imagination.

Linguist V. I. Abaev described the main functions of scientific etymological analysis as follows:

− to compare the basic, non-derivative words of a given language with the words of these opposite languages and to study the history of the form and meaning of the word according to the main language;

− to designate for Latin words within a given language and their components (roots, stems, affixes) in the language parts;

− to determine the source of borrowing for borrowed words.

The etymology of linguistics is very complex and requires a lot of time and patience. Historically, we have to admit that there is a connection between words and things from a diachronic point of view. But their history is so deep that the ability to identify all of them is practically impossible. The main reason for this conclusion is that just as everything in the world is changing and evolving, as well as words. With this in mind, it is concluded that there is no connection between words and things, given the current state of language development, that is, from a synchronic point of view.

As can be seen from the above, etymology is closely related to areas of linguistics such as lexicology. But for an etymologist to be successful, he must have in-depth knowledge in almost all areas of linguistics. He must compare the data of different languages, both modern and ancient, with his own methods in comparative historical linguistics.


  1. Abduazizov A. A. Tilshunoslik nazariyasiga kirish. — Sharq, Toshkent — 2010. — 81p.
  2. Варбот Ж. Ж. Этимология. Большая российская энциклопедия. Том 35. Москва, 2017. — 489–490с.
  3. Irisqulov M. T. Tilshunoslikka kirish. Yangi asr avlodi., 2009. — 96–101p.
  4. Карпенко У. А. Трансляция смысла и трансформация значений первокорня: монография. — Киев: Освита Украины, 2013. — 496 с.
  5. Karimov S. A. Tilshunoslik nazariyasi. Samarqand — 2012. — 21p.

Ключевые слова

etymology, diachronic, etymon, etymological analysis, synchronous
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