This article deals with the effective methods of usage of songs in learning foreign languages, especially English. In addition, the history of using songs during ESL teaching and outstanding linguists’ opinions concerning the matter are discussed.
In the 21st century, our independent republic has established economic, political, cultural and scientific ties with many developed and developing countries,while strengthening these ties one of the main noble goals of our state is to bring up a comprehensively developed young generation.And in implementing this goal, teaching foreign languages is of particular importance.
The language is abstract, language system units and a set of rules for their use, speech is a product of the «revival» of these units in accordance with existing rules.
Linguistic principles of language material — systemicity, concentrism, functionality, methodological differentiation, minimization, situational-thematic principle of material presentation, the principle of distinguishing phenomena at the level of language and speech, and not their mastery; awareness and automatism; Situational representation of the material possession of theoretical information through dialogue, practice; student understanding of teaching methods " [1; p 59].
The use of poems and songs in lessons leads students to learn new, more complex and broad aspects of speech. This will help to form the expressiveness of student speech, increase the pace, breathe, train a good diction.
The use of music and song in learning English is an unusual method, but not very new. Many teachers consciously feel the useful aspects of music in teaching English. Only for its effective use there is a lack of theoretical and practical knowledge. Research is being carried out in the field of cognitive linguistics, anthropology, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics regarding the existence of a close connection between language and music. Scholars such as Bartle (1962), Richards (1969) or Jolly (1975) argued about the use of music both for the linguistic aspect and to increase the interest of researchers.
Music was formulated as an audiolinguistic method in language groups as a method of preventing longing in lessons from the 1950s to the 1970s, as well as a way of relaxing for good brain perception, by Lausanov (1978), Becknoft (1978) in the form of a methodology of suggestopedia.
As the linguist Griffey suggested in 2010, the song and poem are used as pedagogical material in the methods of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Task Based Learning (TBL).
«Without the active work of all students in the lesson, the active performance of various exercises in the lesson, it is impossible to learn a foreign language in practice» [2; p 442].
Methodological principles for the development of speech in a foreign language using poems and songs:
− The principle of the interconnectedness of mental and speech development;
− The principle of speech development as an integral structure;
− The principle of taking into account individual features of speech development;
− Principle of ensuring active speech practice of students;
− The principle of the reverse and practical approach to speech development;
− The principle of ensuring a positive and emotional environment for dialogue.
Using poems and songs to teach English is a great way for students to open the way to «real English». This is especially pronounced when using poems. Learning the language using songs and poems allows students to think creatively and freely, as well as «see and understand» English in the original.
Poems and songs can be used to teach English in various ways. The more songs and poems used during the lesson, the better will be so effective.
Today it is impossible to master external speech as an instrument of dialogue without knowing the socio-cultural characteristics of the language being studied. The communicative approach to learning a foreign language is interrelated.
In English lessons, the song can be used for various purposes: the development of listening abilities, speech abilities, grammatical abilities, filling words, speech skills, acquaintance of the studied language with elements of domestic culture.
The use of songs in the language is associated with a number of reasons. Firstly, the language studied by students is directly related to the culture of the country, since students of this age, according to the psychologist, are sensitive to foreign culture. Secondly, in working with these unique original language materials, a good basis will be created for the comprehensive development of the student's personality, since specially selected songs stimulate creative thinking and form a good taste. Due to the presence of the oral text, one of the most important genres of musical creativity can clearly and logically reflect various aspects of the social life of the people of the country in the language studied.
At any level of English learning, they are easy to find and easy to use.
The song, like another work of art, has a communicative function; it affects the student's mind and memory, the person's feelings as a regional material and his artistic memory.
The songs have everything — ready sentences, living language and grammar. Therefore, this makes it possible to hear, understand, and remember speech.
Poetry and song is an instrument that students listen to and attract them to themselves. The song becomes a motivation to study. The text of the song will be analyzed and its content discussed. The rhythm is determined. A text language will be defined, its composition will be discussed. In this process, no student wants to leave even after the end of classes. Students sincerely want to study the lyrics. After that, students can be given three instructions:
− a written letter to analyze the content of the poem;
− presentation of the poem in subgroups to evaluate oral speech;
− discussion of knowledge learned by each student as individual and group.
Language teachers should use songs as part of the repertoire of teaching in the group. Songs contain a real language, are easily acquired, provide words, grammar and a cultural component and are interesting to students. Thus, they can use expensive speech, listening and language during the lesson and beyond. Songs almost always contain a real and natural language. Naturally, all songs are perfect and do not correspond to the national mentality. Therefore, when choosing carefully, a wide range of songs used to learn the language should be created.
The development of speech is of great importance in the development of the student dictionary, the formation of the grammatical structure of speech, the content of sound culture, the development of technology for the effective use of samples of poetry and song in the development of dialogical and monological speech. This technology, that is, some work on the formation of the process of developing smooth speech, is aimed at purposeful, the plan and system are respected and can be achieved with the creation of certain conditions.
If well planned, applied and evaluated, songs can become useful tools for language teaching and learning. Also, if the right songs are chosen, learning can become a fun and memorable experience. In order to accomplish this, a division between different song types and their purposes needs to be made. House makes a distinction between traditional songs and songs written specially for young learners. She states that children are normally familiar with the former type, while the latter are, as their name suggests, specially written for a textbook to support certain vocabulary and grammar points.
The authentic songs, on the other hand, are a matter of cultural aspect and entertainment. Whether they are specially written for learning English or authentic, it is crucial to choose songs that suit children’s level of English as well as their interest since, as widely accepted, students enjoy simple and catchy songs. The love of repetition and the need to move, common to all young children, make songs integral parts of English lessons.
It is proven that children love playing, singing songs, and experiencing English with their senses.
Therefore, a syllabus for young second language learners should be experientially appropriate and certainly contain songs, rhymes, and chants.
Having this in mind, teachers have to do anything to make their learners happy, cheerful, and satisfied. Consequently, they need to make sure to choose songs and activities which are fun but also fit the curriculum and the theme of their lessons.
Children learn best when they are exposed to real-life contexts. This statement is explained by an assertion that children prefer doing things they like doing outside the classroom. Teachers need to have in mind that some children love active participation and physical movement while others do not like to be physically involved. What also needs to be taken into consideration is whether or not songs are motivational and provide an emotional experience. This is clarified by the fact that children need to be emotionally involved in the learning process which abounds in play-like activities which are likeable and fun, but promote learning. Researchers agree that songs are useful teaching aids which raise and maintain students’ motivation, especially in cases when they are catchy and supported with colorful visuals, realia (objects from real life used in classroom instruction), and movement.
These supplements add additional sensory and visual input which in turn enhances learning.
Songs, chants, poems, and rhymes play an important role in early language development. They represent a flexible resource which allows teachers to use and adapt them in a variety of ways so as to suit the needs of their learners. Children easily absorb and reproduce the language of songs. They serve as an excellent memory tool. The repetition of words, language structures, and rhythm enhance learning and they stick easily in learners’ minds. In order to make this a memorable experience, it is important to choose songs that children find enjoyable and not boring and do not give children the feeling of being forced to
listen to songs that are not appealing to them.
To recap, songs and rhymes are essential in young learners’ classroom for a number of reasons. First of all, they are children’s favorite language activities which contain repetitive language and set phrases.
Furthermore, they develop listening comprehension, they teach pronunciation, intonation and stress in a natural way, and teach vocabulary and language structures of the song. In addition, songs help children build their confidence by allowing them to join in no matter how good their English is. They also build group dynamics. And finally, if a song appeals to children they usually sing it on their own, outside the classroom.
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