The relevance and formulation of the research problem is determined by the change in social relations in society at the present stage and, as a result, the change in the social order of the state in the conditions of modernization of primary General education. At this stage of socio—economic relations, a developing society needs «modernly educated, moral, entrepreneurial people who will be able to make decisions independently in a situation of choice, predicting their possible consequences». Thus, the main focus of the education system is determined by the formation of General educational skills of pupils, which are used in various life situations. In this regard, the mass primary school in Uzbekistan has the task of reorienting from the skill-knowledge model to the developmental model of education.
Keywords: schoolchildren, school performance, educational activities, primary school children.
At the same time, data from the international PISA test (2000) indicate that the educational results of Uzbek schoolchildren do not fully meet international requirements. Uzbek experts note that if the research on the internal logic and content of tasks is focused on the most popular skills in the world practice, then domestic education is not focused on this challenge. The conducted expert and statistical analysis has shown that Uzbek schoolchildren, with a sufficient level of formation of subject skills, do not form General Competencies (General academic, extra-subject skills) in the course of training. Thus, despite the recognition of the need to form General educational skills, the Uzbek education system does not contribute to their formation.
The existing contradiction between the set goals and the actual state of Affairs can be eliminated by changing not only the target orientation, but also the content, methods, methods of interaction, indicators of school performance, and, above all, at the primary school stage. In other words, there is a need for new, innovative approaches to the organization of educational activities of primary school children. At the present stage, one of the main conditions for innovation in the education system is considered pedagogical design. In our opinion, it is pedagogical design that will allow the most holistic and systematic consideration of various aspects of the development of educational activities of primary school children, both at the level of organizational conditions and at the level of implementation of educational activities.
In this situation, in our opinion, the importance of pedagogical design is determined, which will reveal the features of the development of educational activities of younger students, taking into account modern trends and variability of the content of primary General education.
Methods: The relevance of the problem of pedagogical design of educational activities of younger students is determined by the need to implement the subject position of the pupils in the transition of mass primary schools to a developing model of learning, taking into account the variability of the content of primary education.
However, when solving this problem, a number of significant contradictions were identified:
– between the modern requirements of educational policy for the transition of mass primary schools to the model of developing learning and the prevailing explanatory and illustrative model;
– between the subjective nature of educational activity in the model of developing learning and the expressed object position of the child when interacting with the teacher in the educational process;
– Between the need for pedagogical design of educational activities of younger students in the conditions of developing learning and the lack of readiness to solve this problem of primary school teachers.
Given this circumstance, we note the presence of a problem, which is formulated as follows: what is the specificity of pedagogical design of educational activities of younger students in the conditions of developing learning? The purpose of the study is to solve this problem.
The object of research is the educational activity of primary school children. The subject of the research is the pedagogical design of educational activities of primary school children in the conditions of developing learning.
The hypothesis of the research contains the assumption that pedagogical design of educational activities of primary school children in the conditions of developing learning will be effective if;
— A design model will be developed to ensure the subject interaction of participants in the educational process in the development of structural components of educational activities of primary school children;
– An algorithm will be developed for implementing the design model at the organizational-pedagogical and subject-activity levels in the conditions of developing learning;
– Criteria and indicators of implementation will be defined for the model of designing educational activities in the practice of primary schools;
– psychological and pedagogical conditions will be created for the implementation of the model of educational activity of primary school children, taking into account the features of developing learning
– a program will be developed and implemented to prepare primary school teachers for the pedagogical design of educational activities of younger pupils in the conditions of developing learning.
Results: In accordance with the purpose, subject and object of the study, the following tasks are defined:
- To analyze the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature on the problem of designing educational activities of younger pupils.
- To develop a model for designing educational activities of primary school children, which determines the subject position of the child in the educational process in the organization and implementation of educational activities.
- Determine the algorithm for implementing the design model of educational activities of primary school children in the model of developing learning.
- Identify the criteria and indicators for the implementation of the design model of educational activities of younger pupils in the practice of primary schools.
- Determine the psychological and pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the design model of educational activities of primary school children.
- Develop and test a program to prepare teachers for the implementation of the design model of educational activities of younger pupils in the practice of primary schools.
- To Study the dynamics of formation of educational activities of younger students as a result of testing the proposed model in primary school practice.
The methodological basis of research are: the axiological approach that defines the system of humanistic values and based on the recognition of the priority of personality development, in accordance with which man is regarded as the highest value of society; philosophical, psychological and pedagogical trends, which determine the peculiarities of organization and implementation of educational activity of younger schoolchildren in developing education based on principles of development and activities that define the basic approaches of the educational process in elementary school; system-activity and personality-oriented approaches, in the aspect of which educational activity is considered as a means of development and self-realization of the individual; the relationship and interdependence of historical and chronological, content and system approaches that ensure the unity of historical and logical in pedagogical knowledge.
Various research methods were used to solve the set tasks: General theoretical: analysis of philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical literature on the research problem, content analysis; empirical: survey, conversation, pedagogical observation, psychological and pedagogical diagnostics; statistical: quantitative and qualitative analysis of research data.
Conclusion: The didactically interpreted concept of «designing educational activities of primary school children» acts as a preliminary development of a system of actions of the teacher (at the organizational and pedagogical level) and students (at the subject-activity level) for the implementation of all structural components of educational activities, assuming as a predictable result the development of the pupils as a subject of this activity.
The most effective form of designing educational activities of primary school children is a vector-modular model, which provides a single vector orientation at the level of interaction between the teacher and the student within each structural-modular component of educational activity: motivational, indicative, content, operational—activity, control—evaluation, performance-correction and is implemented on the basis of the developed algorithm within each structural component of educational activity in Uzbekistan.
- Abramova G. S. Individual features of formation of educational activity / / Formation of educational activity of schoolchildren / ed. V. V. Davydov, I. Lompshera, A. K. Markova. — M.,: Pedagogy, 1982. — 297 p.
- Actual issues of interest formation in education / ed. by G. I. Shchukina. M.: Enlightenment, 1984. — 176 p.
- Ananyev B. G. Selected psychological works: M: Pedagogic, 1980. -323 p.