This article sets out the methodological foundations for teaching reading of English language in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classroom.
Key words: vocabulary, accuracy, activity, context, methods, exercise, specific information, general understanding.
В этой статье изложены методологические основы обучения чтению английского языка в классе EFL (английский как иностранный).
Ключевые слова: словарный запас, точность, активность, контекст, методы, упражнения, конкретная информация, общее понимание.
When teaching a language, the lexical and grammatical aspects are organically connected: grammar organizes a dictionary, because of which units of meaning are formed — the basis of all speech activity. It is important to pay tribute to the specifics of each aspect, to identify and use its special contribution to a holistic communicatively oriented learning system. The role of vocabulary for mastering a foreign language is as significant as the role of grammar. It is the vocabulary that conveys the immediate subject of thought by virtue of its nominative function, therefore it penetrates all spheres of life, helping to reflect not only real, but also imaginary reality. If you do not know the name of a thing, then you cannot say anything about it. This dependence is especially evident when mastering a foreign language. Any connected text carries thematic vocabulary, the meaning of which is the key to understanding its meaning. the goals and capabilities of each of the stages of language learning determine the specifics of working with the lexical component of speech. Taking this into account allows you to build work on the word rationally, feasibly, and effectively. Learning vocabulary at different stages cannot but differ in the depth of understanding of the word (as a multicomponent unit, unit of a certain style, unit, the meaning of which depends on the context, etc.) and tasks (intensive expansion of the vocabulary, systematization of vocabulary, etc.). Each of the stages of training has its own difficulties: at the middle stage, the problem of remembering a word appears, at the advanced stage — the problem of using it.
- How to teach vocabulary?
Clarification of the meaning of the word is a natural operation that foreign language learners must constantly perform. Therefore, students should increasingly encourage students to become familiar with the word and teach them rational working methods. They should know that first it is necessary to exhaust all the indicated possibilities of the text, use the analysis of the word in terms of composition, and if the meaning does not become clear, then turn to the dictionary.
Familiarization with the words based on the text ends with their selection from the text. Any text introduces only its contextual meaning and one way of communication. To obtain great information about the word, designed to build «their» texts, you need to extract the word from the text and consider it as an independent unit. Thus, the same path is recommended here as when working on grammatical material: presentation of the material in a coherent whole, then highlighting it for close examination and training.
In accordance with this, all lexical exercises are divided into two categories aimed at:
1) memorizing a word, its semantics in unity with the pronunciation and grammatical form
2) the formation of combinations of words of a semantic nature.
Psychologists have found that learning new words is achieved only after students use them in various exercises at least six to eight times. Therefore, the exercises should be varied and facilitate the use of lexical meanings in the speech practice of students. Among the variety of lexical exercises presented in textbooks and supplementary teaching aids, everyone will find the corresponding specific speech tasks.
«Chain of words»
In the lesson, start the chain by saying, for example, the phrase: 'a small ball'. After that, invite the first student to replace the adjective in it, for example: 'a beautiful ball'. Next, ask the second to replace the noun in the new phrase, for example: 'a beautiful doll', etc. A student who does not find a suitable word is eliminated from the game, and the next participant continues the chain. The task continues until there is one winner left in it.
Dictation is an effective form of work with large groups of students.
A teacher can give dictations to students one on one, but unlike most forms of work, a dictation is feasible when working with groups of 20, 60 or 200 people. In world practice there are many similar examples. Dictation is one of the few approaches in teaching a language and learning a language in a large group, which can engage students in the active use of the language.
The text chosen is simple for most students. They perform dictation without any help. Beginners receive a text with 10–15 words issued. Their task, while the rest are dictated, is to listen carefully, try to understand the main meaning and insert the missing words. The level of complexity of the text, the number of omissions may vary depending on the purpose. Such exercises help the teacher not only to cover the whole group, but also to effectively develop language skills.
Text dictation. The teacher dictates the text that was worked out with the students in the lesson, or an unfamiliar text with elaborated vocabulary. Students write down the text as accurately as possible. After the text, you can offer additional lexical or grammar tasks
Selective Dictation. The teacher reads the sentence, students listen. The sentence is read again, and students at this time write out words (or phrases) from it with new vocabulary. In foreign language lessons, curricula can be used that are recorded on discs or directly on the Internet, which are designed to: a) introduce and enhance lexical material; b) teaching types of speech activity with new foreign language lexical units; c) acquaintance with the country of the language being studied in the process of mastering lexical units; d) control the level of ownership of lexical units. Such programs are multimedia, that is, synthesizing sound, video, and texts, which allows you to actively use all kinds of visualization within the framework of one program and form appropriate cultural concepts for students.
Thus, the primary duty of each teacher is to ensure the mastery of vocabulary, which is the most important prerequisite for speaking, the development of students' skills in using it in communication in the language being studied, and the mastery of the teaching methods necessary for successful advancement in learning a foreign language. Teaching vocabulary can be vastly different depending on the methodology that every teacher adheres to, but what is important to develop in English lessons is to force students to fully learn a second language. In this regard, some suggestions were proposed that can be put into practice during the lesson to motivate students to participate in the lesson and perform interactive actions to develop vocabulary.
- Passov E. I. Communicative method of teaching foreign language speaking. — M., 1985.
- Stronin, M. F. Educational games in English lessons: (From work experience). The manual for the teacher. / M. F. Stronin. 2nd ed. –M.: Education, 1984. — 112 p