This article presents the observational data on practical methods and techniques of teaching culture in the ESL and EFL classrooms. Every language is a part of culture. Awareness of FL culture should be viewed as an important component of EFL learning and teaching. Therefore, it is a necessity for teachers to include cultural components in EFL teaching to maximize students’ learning.
Keywords: culture and language, modern pedagogy and techniques, importance of teaching culture.
It is apparent that culture and language has a great connection. Every language is a part of culture. Awareness of FL culture should be viewed as an important component of EFL learning and teaching. Therefore, it is a necessity for teachers to include cultural components in EFL teaching to maximize students’ learning. Especially, by culture learners can be cultivated sense of critical and analytical thinking, problem- solving, communication and other skills that can contribute their future character and professional careers. Besides that, culture can assist to develop their imagination, initiatives, cultural relations and respect to other nations’ customs, traditions and even religions that symbolize worth of human-being. However, teaching culture knowledge is really challenging. Teachers must be acquainted with the differences between linguistic cultures. Teachers can provide cultural information, and teach students to express themselves correctly in different occasions. The key point is how to perform different ways in teaching different cultures. So, according to Stern  there are techniques of culture teaching and presents them in eight groups.
– creating an authentic classroom environment;
– providing cultural information;
– cultural problem solving;
– behavioral and affective aspects;
– cognitive approaches;
– the role of literature and humanities;
– real-life exposure to the target culture;
– making use of cultural community resources
- Authentic classroom environment
It has a great role in teaching in terms of its peculiarities, such as displays, posters, bulletin boards, maps and realia. They can create a visual and perceptible presence of the other culture, especially in the situation where language and culture are taught far away from the target country. Students can also make culture wall charts. A wall chart is a type of large poster. It often displays information for educational use or entertainment.
- Cultural information
This technique includes a large very effective types. For example, cultural aside, culture capsule and culture cluster. One of them is Culture Capsule. It was first recommended by Taylor and Sorensen in1961 and it requires teacher — students’ collaboration. In this method the teacher presents the information orally. It is also possible that students prepare a culture capsule at home and present it during the lesson. The oral presentation is often combined with realia and visuals, as well as with a set of questions to stimulate discussion. One capsule should not take up more than 10 minutes. The main advantage of using a culture capsule is its “compactness and practical manageable quality” 
- Cultural problem solving .
It is considered that, one of the earliest and convenient training tool is Cultural Assimilator which is at the top of the list of cultural problem solving technique. Every person can solve a problem in accordance with his or her character and attitude to this issue. In this method learners are given some different problematic event about different cultures and the task is to find a correct response faithfully. Moreover, by this method learner can compare the differences of different cultures as well as it is really helpful to develop decision making skill.
- Behavioral and affective aspects.
This technique is thought the most interesting one because of following examples: drama and mini-drama. They serve to improve not only target cultural knowledge, but also develop their imagination, optimism and sense of interest to art. Especially it involves role-play and simulation as well as encourages them to position themselves in the role of a member of the other culture. Dramatization makes cultural differences vivid and memorable as drama mirrors reality.  Minidrama is a series of skits or scenes of everyday life that illustrates culturally significant behavior. Often the scenes contain examples of miscommunication. The skit is read, viewed on a video or acted out. Each skit is followed by a
discussion. After mini-drama teacher establishes discussion orally with learners that what they understood and what pros and cons they felt.
- Cognitive approaches.
This approach represents itself by an example of student research. Doing research is also a necessary one to clarify new things and it is an effective way of working independently. Besides that, researching is a study of an event, phenomenon an area or an issue that can broaden target cultural knowledge. The research may be big or small because of difficulty of the given topic. As it is said “To do research, one first needs to have a topic‟. The topic may be a problem, a study, or an area to be investigated to find out more information or to confirm or disprove existing knowledge.” . A topic is chosen by teachers or students. In that time a topic should appropriate to learners age, gender and level of knowledge that not so easy and so difficult to figure out and gather materials to use. Sometimes A small group research is also possible to combine all ideas and collect the most suitable materials from the library or web- sites Because it can make a friendship atmosphere and save some hours.
- The role of literature and humanities.
It is thought that this technique is suitable learning tool for teaching culture. Because, firstly it is connected with all approaches that it is mentioned before. Secondly, from the past literature has been the most popular way to introduce different cultures. As said, literature cannot escape its cultural implications, and literature is a response to a relationship between the culture of the students and that represented by the current readers of literature being presented . The target — culture is developed by literature and teachers ought to know which material is more effectual for learners. Because, readers shouldn’t be bored easily and fast because of difficult and unappropriate reading. However, just giving literal texts is not enough. In that time teachers are to help students to understand aims, meanings, problems and cultural terms correctly and avoid some cultural misunderstandings in student’s mind.
- Real-life exposure to the target culture.
No matter in EFL and ESL classrooms are decorated with authentic material or make so many discussions until the students create a real- life learning culture, they have some problems with understanding culture. For this visiting to the class by native speakers, making e — conversations with foreign pen-pals and visiting to other countries are the best methods to consolidate target- culture knowledge.  These styles of learning are essential to make sure that all information is correct or fake as well as nothing is more sufficient than students witness a real –culture without any fine-spun things.
- Making use of cultural community resources
While we are learning a target language with culture perhaps we may have some troubles in finding correct translation or equivalents of some terms.  Contrariwise, when a foreign language learning takes place in the target-language community, the everyday environment can be used as a real training of learning language and culture. By this the period of learning language and adapting to cultural differences can decrease because of local people, real cultural events and others.
In conclusion, language learning and teaching not only depend on grammar, lexis or vocabulary it needs cultural features and characteristics. The reason why, using language is related to social and cultural values generally. For this, teachers should integrate all lessons with effective practical techniques to improve students’ target-culture knowledge and imagination. In this regard, intercultural competence might be considered as the fifth skill of English language learners.
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