This article is about methods for correcting errors in the process of learning English. In this article, it is spoken about the differences between a mistake caused by lack of knowledge, wrong judgment or misunderstanding and an error caused by a conscious or unconscious deviation from the generally accepted norm, given that the norm is known and understood and how to solve them in the process of learning English.
Keywords: process, mistakes, speech, writing, to teach, a foreign language, correctly, the methodology, origin, therefore, methodically, the teacher, the student.
Эта статья о методах исправления ошибок в процессе изучения английского языка. В этой статье говорится о различиях между ошибкой, вызванной недостатком знаний, неправильным суждением или недоразумением, и ошибкой, вызванной сознательным или бессознательным отклонением от общепринятой нормы, учитывая, что норма известна и понята, и способами ее решения их в процессе изучения английского языка.
Ключевые слова: процесс, ошибки, речь, письмо, учить, иностранный язык, правильно, методология, происхождение, следовательно, методично, учитель, ученик.
Learning a foreign language is a rather long and laborious process. Students often make a lot of different mistakes in speech and writing, despite the best efforts of the teacher to teach him to write and speak a foreign language correctly. From the point of view of the methodology of teaching foreign languages, mistakes are of a different nature, origin, therefore, methodically properly organized work with mistakes is necessary, both from the teacher and from the student.
In the methodology of teaching foreign languages, there are two opposing points of view whether students' mistakes should be corrected. This problem depends on a few factors, both external and internal. The word “error” in teaching foreign languages has a negative connotation, as it is associated with a deviation from the norm of the language being studied. However, this word may also mean that the learning process is effective. In the English language teaching methodology, two words are used to designate the term error: mistake is a mistake caused by lack of knowledge, wrong judgment or misunderstanding and error is an error caused by a conscious or unconscious deviation from the generally accepted norm, given that the norm is known and understood. However, we believe that even with such a seemingly understandable distinction, a double interpretation of this approach is possible.
Learning English is not as difficult and impossible as it might seem at first glance. In order to achieve the desired success, it is necessary to organize the workflow correctly and try to avoid common mistakes. The most popular and dangerous mistake. Studies show that too active study of only grammar has a negative effect on speech abilities. Why? English grammar can be difficult to understand logically, and real-time communication is fast. It turns out that you will not have enough time to remember the hundreds of learned rules just to speak out. It is advisable that you master the English grammar at a subconscious and intuitive level. The best way is to actively communicate with foreigners and listen to correct English speech.
− What mistakes should be corrected?
Errors are classified by language aspects (phonetic, lexical, grammar). There are obvious and hidden errors. Depending on the impact on the understanding of speech, there are strong and weak mistakes. Interlanguage (linguistic interference) and interlanguage (for example, over generalization — the transfer of the studied rule to exceptions) are distinguished. In addition to errors (in English “errors”), there is also the term “mistake, minor mistake” (“mistake”), a deviation from the norm with the possibility of a quick self-correction of the speaker / writer (reservation, slip of finger). If the student’s work is clearly communicative in nature and the focus is on the content, only those errors that impede understanding should be corrected.
− How should errors be corrected?
Error correction is an expression of negative feedback. Many sources cite six types of error correction indicated by reputable linguistic scientists:
- Explicit correction. An explicit correction, when the teacher points directly to the mistake, explains what it is, and gives the correct answer.
- Recast. Periphrases — pronouncement / spelling of the original incorrectly shaped speech pattern without an error, but without any explanations from the teacher.
- Clarification Request. This is a common situation in real communication.
- Metalinguistic Cues. The use of terminology (for example, grammatical — the teacher uses the term: “time”, “article”, etc.) is a reaction related to the student's statement, but not offering the correct form.
- Elicitation. The teacher can accompany his words: finger coding: count each word spoken with your fingers, noting “finger-error”.
- Repetition. Repetition of a student’s wrong statement by a teacher with an obligatory verbal emphasis in the part where an error was made. If you do not highlight the error in the voice, the student may think that the plausibility of the statement is being questioned.
Who should correct them?
Of course, the initiator of the process is the teacher, but when answering the previous question it becomes obvious that the student takes a very active position in this process, the main role is played by self-correction and correction by other students.
Thus, working with students' mistakes is an integral component of the teacher’s activities. It must take into account such factors as the age of students and the causes of errors. Accordingly, the teacher can offer various types of tasks to prevent and correct common mistakes.
- James M. Hendrickson. Error Correction in Foreign Language Teaching: Recent Theory, Research, and Practice*The Modern Language Journal 1. James M. Hendrickson. Error Correction in Foreign Language Teaching: Recent Theory, Research, and Practice.*The Modern Language Journal. Volume 62
- Меркулова С. Г. Современные подходы к исправлению ошибок в устной речи при изучения иностранного языка.// Английский язык. Приложение к газете «Первое сентября». — № 45. — 2002.
- Julian Edge, Mistakes and Corrections, Longman, 1989