The dissimilarities of grammatical structures in both languages which are difficulties to translators and some construction can be changed to give the appropriate message in translation process. The types of grammatical transformations between two languages are as follows: Grammar substitution, when a grammar category of the translated unit is changed. He is apoorswimmer. –У яхши сузишни билмайди- where the noun is substituted by the verb, the adjective by the adverb; simultaneously the predicative is substituted by the simple verb predicate . Sentence partitioning is the replacement of a simple sentence in the source text with a complex sentence (with some clauses), or a complex sentence with several independent sentences in the target text for structural, semantic or stylistic reasons: My car wouldn’t start. Therefore, Icouldn’t pick you up.- Машинамни ўт олдира олмадим, шунинг учун сизни олиб кетишга боролмадим. Sentence integration is a contrary transformation. It takes place when we make one sentence out of two or more, or convert a complex sentence into a simple one: In ancient Rome, garlic was believed to make people courageous. Roman soldiers, therefore, ate large quantities of it before abattle. -Айтишларча, қадимги Римда саримсоқ пиёз еса қуввват бағишларкан, шунинг учун Римлик аскарлар жанг олди кўп саримсоқ пиёзни истеъмол қилган эканлар. In order to attain the fullest information from one language into another one is obliged to resort numerous interlinguistic lexical and grammatical transformations.
I studied the role of grammatical transformations in the translation of complex sentences for novelty of research (on the material of the US Constitution).To study the specific features of the translation of complex sentences from English into Uzbek, the parallel text of the US Constitution was given in English and Uzbek.
The transposition of members in subordinate clause are happened in the following translations. For example:
1) All legislative Powers here in granted shall be vested in aCongress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives . — Бу ерда берилган барча қонунчилик ваколатлари Сенат ва Вакиллар палатасидан иборат бўлган Қўшма Штатларнинг Конгрессига берилади.
Replacement of the attributive clause by a participial. For example:
2) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by law Direct. — Аҳолининг умумий ҳисоб-китоби АҚШ Конгрессининг биринчи сессиясидан кейин уч йил ичида, сўнг ҳар ўн йилда қонун билан белгиланган тартибда амалга оширилади.
Grammatical transformations include an antonymic translation. Although this type of transformation is rare, it cannot be ignored. In the text under research, the antonymic translation occurs only once:
3) The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.— Қўшма Штатлар Вице-Президенти Сенат раиси, аммо овоз беришда фақат овозлар тенг тақсимланган ҳолларда иштирок этиши мумкин. In this sentence, the negative form in the original is replaced by an affirmative form in translation, that is, an antonymic translation is performed.
4) A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee fromJustice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. — Бирон бир штатда давлатга хиёнат қилиш, ўта оғир ёки бошқа жиноятларда ва бошқа штатда қочоқликда айбланаётган шахс, қочиб кетган штат ижро этувчи идорасининг талабига биноан, жиноят содир этилган штатдаги суд муҳокамасига юборилиши сўралади.
This sentence has two clauses: the first is replaced by participial and the second retains the structure of the English subordinate clause. Hence, when translating this sentence, grammatical transformations are combined — the replacement of the subordinate clause by the participial + the syntactic assimilation.
5) And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right ofchoice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. — Агар Вакиллар Палатасига танлов ҳуқуқи ўтадиган бўлса, келгуси мартнинг тўртинчи кунигача Президентни сайламайди, унда президентнинг ўлимига ёки президентнинг бошқа конституцион қобилиятига эга бўлмаган тақдирда Вице-президент, Президент вазифасини бажаради.
This sentence has one subordinate clause and one — time. In English the subordinate clause comes after the object, and in Uzbek — the transposition in subordinate clause is occurred in translation, the location of the subordinate clause of time is not changed. Therefore, the syntactic structure of the sentence changes. Thus, comparing the complex sentences, we can conclude that the most common grammatical transformation when translating one or more subordinate clauses is syntactic assimilation.
6) If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law.— Агар бундай қайта кўриб чиқилгандан сўнг, ушбу палатанинг учдан икки вакиллари қонун лойиҳасини қабул қилишга рози бўлса, у эътироз билдирилган овозлар билан бирга бошқа палатага юборилади ва шу тарзда қайта кўриб чиқилади. Агар қонун лойиҳаси бошқа палатанинг учдан икки вакили томонидан маъқулланса, қонун қабул қилинади.
This sentence has two complex sentences that are combined into one complex proposal with the help of conjunction and. When translating into Uzbek, one complex sentence is transformed into two separate complex sentences, there is a division of the sentence. In order to have the most correctly analyze the features of the translation of complex sentences from English into Uzbek on the basis of the US Constitution, it is necessary to know what this document represents. In addition, when analyzing it is important to take into account its structure and style of language. The most common grammatical transformation used in the translation of complex sentences with one subordinate clause is syntactic assimilation. The widespread using of this type of «zero» transformation is explained by the fact that complex sentences in English and Uzbek have a similar syntactic structure in view of the affiliation of these two languages. The grammatical transformations in the text of the US Constitution include transposition, substitution and an antonymic translation. In the text of the US Constitution, assimilation and dissimilation of grammatical components, namely, complex sentences were found and analyzed from English into Uzbek.
- Proshina.Z.G. “Theory of translation (English and Russian)” 3re-edition, revised Vladivostok, Far Eastern University Press,2008.
- The Constitution of the United States. The Bill of Rights & All Amendments. 1787.